Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993, IX, 235 pp. 141 figs., some in color
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Soil and water pollution have a serious impact on the environment, and soil scientists and hydrologists need fundamental help for the estimation of the consequences. The experiments described in this volume deal with the quantification of the morphology of interaggregate voids and of the flow through such voids as well as around impermeable inclusions. The diagrams given in the appendix can be used as references for such measurements. This work is put into the context of the international literature on the subject. An index and a glossary complete the volume. The subject of this work is of great interest to hydrologists and soil scientists working on the estimation of the consequences of soil and water pollution.
1 Introduction.- 2 Survey of the Subject.- 2.1 The Setting of This Subject.- 2.2 Morphology of Soil Structure with Regards to Water Movement.- 2.2.1 Concepts and Aspects.- 2.2.2 The Three-Dimensional Reality of Soil Structure and Its Image.- 2.2.3 A Related Topic: the Morphometry of the Microrelief of the Soil Surface.- 2.3 Flow of Water Through the Larger Voids in the Soil.- 2.3.1 Concepts for the Flow of Water Through Larger Voids in the Soil.- 2.3.2 Related Topics: Overland Flow, Interflow, Preferential Flow, Pipe Flow.- 2.4 The Approach Followed in This Study to Contribute to Problem Solutions.- 3 Basic Considerations.- 3.1 The Characterization of the Geometry of Inter-Aggregate Voids.- 3.1.1 The length of the Inter-Aggregate Voids Ler.- 3.1.2 The Volume of the Inter-Aggregate Voids PVer.- 3.1.3 The Volume of the Intra-Aggregate Voids PVra.- 3.1.4 The Total Pore Volume TPV.- 3.1.5 The Continuity of the Inter-Aggregate Voids NC.- 3.1.6 The Median of the Void Width Distribution Md.- 3.1.7 The Most Frequent Void Width (modal value).- 3.1.8 The Surface of the Aggregates Fa.- 3.1.9 The Hydraulic Radius of the Inter-Aggregate Voids Rh (cm).- 3.1.10 The Geometric Quartile Deviation of the Inter-Aggregate Void Widths Devq.- 3.1.11 The Skewness Coefficient of the SCVW Sk.- 3.1.12 The Variation Coefficient of the Void Widths Diff.- 3.1.13 The Filter Surface FF.- 3.1.14 The Inter-Aggregate Void Surface Fer.- 3.2 The Characterization of the Flow of Water Through Inter-Aggregate Voids and Around Impermeable Inclusions.- 3.2.1 Fluid Mechanics.- 3.2.2 Solute Transport Processes, Mixing and Flow Components.- 22.214.171.124 Breakthrough Curves, Mixing and Leaching Efficiencies.- 126.96.36.199 Degrees of Mixing.- 188.8.131.52 Inter-Aggregate Rates of Flow.- 3.3 Remarks on this Effort to Quantitatively Record the Shape and Hydromechanical Function of the Soil Structure.- 3.3.1 The Morphometry of Soil Structure.- 3.3.2 The Selection of Morphometric Parameters.- 3.3.3 The Chosen Column Dimensions.- 3.3.4 Spacing and Orientation of the Image Planes.- 3.3.5 The Scale of the Evaluated Images.- 3.3.6 The Procedure for the Evaluation of the Images.- 4 Experimental Studies.- 4.1 Experiments on the Movement of Water in Inter-Aggregate Voids.- 4.1.1 Construction of Soil Columns with an Artificial Structure.- 4.1.2 Execution of Experiments.- 4.1.3 Evaluation of the Experiments.- 4.1.4 Results.- 4.2 Experiments on the Flow Around Impermeable Inclusions.- 4.2.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 4.2.2 Description of the Experimental Procedure.- 4.2.3 Evaluation of the Experiments.- 184.108.40.206 Flow Data.- 220.127.116.11 Mixing Data.- 4.2.4 Results.- 4.3 Experiments on the Influence of Air Inclusions on Water Movement.- 4.3.1 Preliminary Remark.- 4.3.2 Set Up and Execution of the Experiments.- 4.3.3 Evaluation of the Experiments.- 4.3.4 Results of the Experiments.- 4.4 Void Morphometry and Infiltration Rates.- 4.4.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 4.4.2 Description of the Experiments.- 4.4.3 Evaluation of the Experiments.- 4.4.4 Results of the Experiments.- 5 Discussion of the Results and Concluding Analysis.- 5.1 Interpretation of the Experimental Results.- 5.1.1 Experiments on the Movement of Water in Inter-Aggregate Voids.- 18.104.22.168 The Morphometry of Inter-Aggregate Voids.- 22.214.171.124 The Relationship Between Flow Processes and Void Morphometry.- 5.1.2 Experiments on the Flow Around Inclusions.- 5.1.3 Experiments on the Influence of Air Inclusions on Water Movement.- 5.1.4 Void Morphometry and Infiltration Rate.- 5.1.5 The Applicability of the Modified Ergun Equation According to MacDonald et al. (1979) to Soil Hydrologie Studies.- 5.2 Some Possibilities and Restrictions of Application.- 6 Summary.- References.- List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Constants.- Author Index.