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Environmental Sciences - Pollution and Remediation | Automobile Exhaust Emission Testing - Measurement of Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components,

Automobile Exhaust Emission Testing

Measurement of Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components, Exhaust Emission Tests

Klingenberg, H.

Translated by Grubinger-Rhodes, C.

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996, XXVIII, 383 pp. 301 figs.

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  • About this book

Differing legislation between countries or unions of countries involved in pollution reduction has turned gas measuring technology into such an extremely extensive and complex field that only a few specialists in environmental agencies and the automobile industry have a grasp of it. This book is intended as an overview of the basics of exhaust gas measuring technology describing the interrelation between emissions, immissions and the effects of pollutants. It aims to provide experts and students alike with an understanding of the interrelationships and details within this field. The results presented are based on the experience gathered by the author during work spanning more than two decades in the automobile industry. H. Klingenberg is Professor and Director of the Metrology and Reciprocating Machines Institute at the Otto-von-
Guericke-University in Magdeburg, Germany. His professional career in universities, research institutes and industry, including a long span as Head of the Metrology Research and Central Laboratories at Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg, Germany, give him authority in fields related to exhaust gas measuring technology. Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: Application

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Abgas - Kraftfahrzeuge - Measuring techniques - Meßtechnik - exhaust emissions - pollution

Related subjects » Pollution and Remediation - Robotics

Table of contents 

1 Overview.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 This Volume’s Contents.- 2 Automobile Exhaust Gas Emissions.- 2.1 Origin of Automobile Exhaust Gas Emissions.- 2.1.1 Chemistry of Engine Combustion.- 2.1.2 Typical Main Components of Automobile Exhaust Gas.- 2.1.3 Calculation of Mass Concentration in Volume Concentrations.- 2.1.4 Formation of Soot Particles.- 2.2 Evaporation and Fueling Emissions.- 2.2.1 Hydrocarbon Emission Sources of a Motor Vehicle.- 2.2.2 Evaporation Emissions.- 2.2.3 Fueling Emission.- 2.3 Legislation.- 2.3.1 Historical Development.- 2.3.2 Legislation from the Present Viewpoint.- 2.4 Present Condition of the Exhaust Pipe Exhaust Emissions of Passenger Vehicles.- 2.5 Emission Prognosis for Germany (Calculated in 1990).- 2.5.1 Overview.- 2.5.2 Parameters.- 2.5.3 Calculation Method.- 2.5.4 Results.- 2.5.5 Consequences.- 3 Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions on a Global and Country-Related Scale and the Resulting Pollutant Concentrations in the Atmosphere.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Sources and Source Strengths of Individual Trace Gases.- 3.2.1 Hydrocarbons.- 3.2.2 Carbon Monoxide.- 3.2.3 Carbon Dioxide.- 3.2.4 Nitrogen Oxides.- 3.2.5 Sulfur Dioxide.- 3.2.6 Ozone.- 4 Air Quality Control.- 4.1 Dispersion Models.- 4.1.1 Street Canyon Model.- 4.1.2 Highway Model.- 4.2 Scenarios for the Assessment of Air Quality Situations.- 4.3 Scenario Definitions.- 4.4 Pollutant Concentrations in Street Canyons.- 4.5 Measured Air Quality Values.- 4.5.1 Street Canyon.- 4.6 Air Quality Maps.- 4.7 Conclusion.- 5 Effects.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Legislation.- 5.3 Effect on Humans, Significance of Dose.- 5.4 Using the Effect of Carbon Monoxide (CO) on Humans as an Example.- 5.5 Carcinogenic Substances.- 5.6 Methods of Effect Research.- 5.6.1 In-Vitro Tests.- 5.6.2 In-Vivo Tests.- 5.6.3 Problems of In-Vitro and In-Vivo Examinations.- 5.7 Research Projects and Results in Chronological Order.- 5.7.1 Experiments with Gasoline Engine Exhaust Gas (a UBA/FAT Project).- 5.7.2 Test with Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas (a Volkswagen/Audi Project).- 5.7.3 Experiments with Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas, Gasoline Engine with and without Three-Way Catalytic Converter, Diesel Engine Exhaust with and without Soot Particles (a CCMC Project).- 5.7.4 Worldwide Projects.- 5.7.5 Joint Research Program (JRP) in the Federal Republic of Germany.- 5.8 Forest Damage.- 5.8.1 General Remarks.- 5.8.2 The Terms “Acid” and “Alkaline”.- 5.8.3 Hypothesis for the Explanation of Tree Diseases.- 5.9 Global Environmental Pollution.- 5.9.1 Natural Greenhouse Effect.- 5.9.2 Anthropogenic Contribution.- 5.9.3 Increase in the CO2 and Methane Concentrations in the Atmosphere.- 5.9.4 Effects.- 5.9.5 Critical Remarks.- 6 Measuring Methods and Measuring Instruments.- 6.1 Absorption spectroscopy.- 6.1.1 Introduction.- 6.1.2 Theoretical Basis.- 6.1.2.1 Types of Spectra.- 6.1.2.2 Energy - Frequency Correlation.- 6.1.2.3 Electron Band Spectra.- 6.1.2.4 Vibrational Spectra.- 6.1.2.5 Pure Rotational Spectra.- 6.1.2.6 Rotational-Vibrational Spectra under Normal Conditions.- 6.1.3 Lambert-Beer law.- 6.1.4 Nondispersive Infrared Measuring Method (NDIR).- 6.1.4.1 Operating Principle of the NDIR Measuring Instrument.- 6.1.4.2. Principle of Multicomponent Measurement acc. to the Gas Filter Correlation Method.- 6.1.4.3 Electronics.- 6.1.5 Nondispersive Ultraviolet Analyzer (NDUV) for NO.- 6.1.6 Microwave Gas Analysis.- 6.1.7 Fourier-Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR Spectrometer).- 6.1.7.1 Principle and Method.- 6.1.7.2 Assessment of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for Measuring Automobile Exhaust Gases.- 6.1.8 Semiconductor-Diode-Laser (SDL) Spectrometer as Selective Emitter.- 6.2 Ionization Methods.- 6.2.1 General Observations.- 6.2.2 Flame Ionization Detector (FID).- 6.2.2.1 Operating Principle.- 6.2.2.2 The Mechanism of Ion Formation.- 6.2.2.3 Assessment of FID Instruments.- 6.3 Chemiluminescence Analyzer.- 6.3.1 Principle.- 6.3.2 Method and Measuring Instrument.- 6.4 Oxygen Measuring Methods.- 6.4.1 General Observations.- 6.4.2 Paramagnetic Measuring Methods.- 6.4.2.1 Torsion Balance Method.- 6.4.2.2 Differential Pressure Methods.- 6.4.3 Electrochemical Oxygen Measurement.- 6.5 Chromatographic Methods.- 6.5.1 Basics.- 6.5.2 Gas-Solid Chromatography (GSC).- 6.5.3 High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography (HPLC).- 6.6 Mass Spectrometry (MS).- 6.6.1 Basic Observations.- 6.6.2 Inlet System.- 6.6.3 Electron Impact Sources.- 6.6.4 Ion Optics.- 6.6.5 Mass Separation Systems.- 6.6.5.1 Static Separation Systems.- 6.6.5.2 Dynamic Separation Systems.- 6.6.6 Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) Spectrometer.- 6.6.7 Mass Resolving Power.- 6.6.8 Exemplary Result.- 6.6.9 GASP - Gas Analysis by Sampling Plasma.- 6.6.9.1 Basic Observations.- 6.6.9.2 Principle.- 6.6.10 Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer.- 6.6.11 Tunable Laser Ion Source for TOF-MS.- 6.6.12 Assessment of Mass Spectrometry.- 6.6.13 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).- 7 Measurement of Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components and Diesel Exhaust Gas Particles.- 7.1 Legislative Situation with regard to Unregulated Components.- 7.2 Sampling.- 7.2.1 Sampling from Undiluted Exhaust Gas.- 7.2.1.1 Total Flow Method.- 7.2.1.2 Partial Flow Method.- 7.2.2 Sampling from Diluted Exhaust Gas.- 7.2.2.1 Isokinetic Sampling from the Dilution Tunnel.- 7.2.2.2 Collection in Sample Bags.- 7.2.2.3 Adsorption and Absorption.- 7.2.2.4 Automatic Sampling System.- 7.3 Sample Treatment and Analysis.- 7.3.1 General.- 7.3.2 Analysis of Gaseous Exhaust Components without Preceding Treatment.- 7.3.3 Combined Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).- 7.3.4 Further Analytical Procedures.- 7.4 Emission Values of Some Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components.- 7.5 Summary of the Order of Magnitude of Emission Results.- 7.6 Measurement of Diesel Particles.- 7.6.1 Measuring Procedure.- 7.6.2 Measurement Results.- 7.6.3 Particle Bound Substances.- 7.6.4 Elementary Composition of Particles.- 7.6.5 Influence of Different Parameters.- 7.6.6 Determination of the Density Function of Aerodynamic Particle Diameters.- 8 Vehicle Exhaust Emission Tests.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Test Techniques.- 8.2.1 Overview of the Test Process.- 8.2.2 Specified Test Fuels.- 8.2.3 Driving Cycle.- 8.2.3.1 Remarks.- 8.2.3.2 Development of Driving Cycles.- 8.2.3.3 Assessment and Comparison Criteria.- 8.2.3.4 Results of Test Runs.- 8.2.3.5 Proposal for a New Worldwide Standard Driving Cycle.- 8.2.4 Driver.- 8.2.5 Chassis Dynamometer.- 8.2.5.1 Remarks.- 8.2.5.2 Resistive Forces on Vehicles on the Chassis Dynamometer.- 8.2.5.3 Resistive Forces for Vehicles driven on the Road.- 8.2.5.4 Procedure for Calibrating the Test Stand.- 8.2.6 Exhaust Emission Sampling System.- 8.2.6.1 Remarks.- 8.2.6.2 CVS Calibration.- 8.2.6.3 Checking the Overall System.- 8.2.7 Quantitative Analysis of the CVS Gas Samples.- 8.2.8 Calibration Gases.- 8.2.8.1 Principles.- 8.2.8.2 Legislation.- 8.2.8.3 Calibration Gases in Cylinders.- 8.2.9 Final: Calculation of the Measurement Results.- 8.2.9.1 US-75 Test.- 8.2.9.2 Calculation of the Fuel Consumption.- 8.2.10 Measuring the Fuel Evaporation Emission in the SHED Test.- 8.3 A New Proposed Exhaust Emission Test System.- 9 Vehicle Exhaust Emission Testing Procedures - Overview and Criticism.- 9.1 Regulated Procedures.- 9.1.1 Monitoring the Automobile Manufacturer.- 9.1.2 Monitoring the Automobile Owner.- 9.1.3 Lack of Standardized Procedures.- 9.2 Statistical Errors.- 9.3 Operational Characteristics.- 9.4 Systematic Errors, Round Robin Tests.- 9.5 Analysis of Systematic and Random Errors.- 9.5.1 Both Error Types.- 9.5.2 Influence of Parameters of the FTP on Overall Uncertainty.- 9.5.3 Total Safety Margin.- 9.6 Certification Testing.- 9.6.1 European Procedure.- 9.6.2 US Procedure.- 9.7 Assembly Line Testing.- 9.7.1 European Test, Inspection by Variables.- 9.7.2 Assembly Line Testing in the USA, 49 States, Attributive Method.- 9.7.3 California Assembly Line Testing, Inspection by Variables.- 9.7.4 Discussion of Existing Assembly Line Test Procedures.- 9.8 Interrelationship between Certification, Assembly Line, and Field Monitoring Tests.- 9.9 Monitoring the Vehicles in Use.- 9.9.1 Introduction.- 9.9.2 Summary.- 9.9.3 Short Tests.- 9.9.4 System Check (Parts Check).- 9.9.5 The AU in Germany.- 9.9.6 On-Board Diagnosis (OBD).- 9.10 Proposal for a New Logical Test Procedure.- 10 Exhaust Emission Measuring Techniques - Quo Vadis?.- 10.1 General Aspects.- 10.2 On-Board Measuring Procedures.- 10.3 Outlook.

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