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Environmental Sciences - Pollution and Remediation | Recycling and Resource Recovery Engineering - Principles of Waste Processing

Recycling and Resource Recovery Engineering

Principles of Waste Processing

Stessel, Richard I.

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996, X, 263 pp. 75 figs.

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This book covers mechanical processing of solid waste. It moves beyond a basic understanding of waste control to encompass waste processing as an industry expected to take its place alongside existing industrial raw materials suppliers. The author begins by describing the industry as it should develop, and then presents an advanced discussion of waste analysis, including a description of the features of a waste analysis laboratory. He goes on to describe universal design principles in waste processing, then discusses combustion, degradation, shredding, screening, air classification, metals separation, and automated materials detection. The focus throughout is on the analytic understanding of principles of operation necessary to undertake recycling and resource recovery with a cost-effective industrial approach. Richard I. Stessel has been doing research and design in resource recovery engineering for over 15 years. He is a registered Professional Engineer and board certified in Solid Waste Engineering by the American Academy of Environmental Engineer's Solid Waste Processing Division and chairs the Landfill and Composting Committee of the Air & Waste Management Association. Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: Application

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Glas - combustion - energy - plastics - recycling

Related subjects » Environmental Engineering and Physics - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity - Pollution and Remediation

Table of contents 

1 Waste as a Resource.- 1.1 Political Background.- 1.1.1 Governmental Roles in Waste Management.- 1.1.2 Research.- 1.2 Resource Economics.- 1.2.1 Industry.- 1.2.2 Disposable Materials.- 1.3 Recycling.- 1.3.1 Disposable Materials Composition.- 1.3.2 Collection.- 1.4 Automated Processing.- 1.4.1 The Possibilities.- 1.4.2 Research.- 2 Waste Analysis.- 2.1 Waste Sampling.- 2.1.1 Statistics of Sampling.- 2.1.2 Mechanics of Sampling.- 2.2 Waste Composition.- 2.2.1 Procedures.- 2.2.2 Categorization.- 2.3 Determination of Waste Properties.- 2.3.1 Determination of Size Distributions.- 2.3.2 Size and Sample Reduction for Analysis.- 2.3.3 Moisture Content.- 2.3.4 Density.- 2.3.5 Terminal Velocity.- 2.4 Energy Recovery Assessments.- 2.4.1 Ash and Fines Analysis.- 2.4.2 Energy Content.- 2.4.3 Degradability.- 2.5 Hazardous Waste Aspects.- 2.6 The Waste Analysis Laboratory.- 3 System Design.- 3.1 Design of Recycling Systems.- 3.1.1 Collection Systems.- 3.1.2 Unloading the Vehicle at the T-MRF.- 3.1.3 Industry Configuration.- 3.2 Design of Process Trains.- 3.2.1 Process Train Design and Complexity.- 3.2.2 Laboratory Research.- 3.2.3 Unit Operation General Design Principles.- 3.2.4 MRF Configuration.- 3.3 Product Design for Recycling.- 3.3.1 Examples of Product Design.- 3.3.2 Product Design with the MRF in Mind.- 3.4 Efficiency of Unit Operations and Systems.- 3.5 Conveyance.- 3.5.1 Belt conveyors.- 3.5.2 Other Positive-Action Conveyors.- 3.5.3. Pneumatic Transport.- 3.6 Safety.- 4 Energy Recovery.- 4.1 Combustion Equipment.- 4.1.1 General Configurations of Combustors.- 4.1.2 Energy Recovery.- 4.1.3 Grates.- 4.2 Energy Recovery Analysis.- 4.2.1 Energy Content.- 4.2.2 Oxygen Requirements.- 4.2.3 Energy Recovery.- 4.2.4 Energy Losses.- 4.3 Emissions.- 4.3.1 Emissions of Concern.- 4.3.2 Emissions Monitoring.- 4.3.3 Physical Control Systems.- 4.3.4 Chemical Control.- 4.4 Residue Control.- 4.4.1 The Nature of Ash Streams.- 4.4.2 In-Plant Operations.- 4.4.3 Disposal.- 4.5 Refuse-Derived Fuel.- 5 Size Reduction.- 5.1 Volume Reduction.- 5.2 Particle Size Reduction.- 5.2.1 Shredders.- 5.2.2 Concepts in Particle Size Reduction.- 5.2.3 Energy Requirements.- 6 Fluid Separation.- 6.1 General Theory of Fluids Separation.- 6.2 Categories of Fluids Separators.- 6.2.1 Flotation Separators.- 6.2.2 Air Separation.- 6.3 Air Classification in Waste Processing.- 6.3.1 Zigzag Air Classifiers.- 6.3.2 Active Pulsed-Flow Air Classification.- 6.3.3 Air Cleaning: the Cyclone Separator.- 7 Screening.- 7.1 Flat Screens.- 7.1.1 Types of Flat Screen.- 7.1.2 Basic Screening Principles.- 7.2 Screening Theory.- 7.3 The Trommel and Related Theory.- 7.3.2 Particle Trajectory.- 7.3.2 Screen Rise.- 7.3.3 Bed Dimensions and Screening.- 7.4 Trommel Operation.- 7.4.1 Trommel Behavior.- 7.4.2 Trommel Implementation.- 8 Metals Recovery.- 8.1 Ferrous Metals Separation.- 8.1.1 Properties of Ferrous Metals.- 8.1.2 Principles of Magnetic Field-Ferrous Material Interactions.- 8.1.3 Extraction of Material from a Bed.- 8.1.4 Magnetic Separation Equipment.- 8.2 Non-Ferrous Metals Separation.- 8.2.1 Eddy-Current Separator Theory.- 8.2.2 Types of Eddy-Current Separator.- 9 Detect-and-Route Systems.- 9.1 Detect-and-Route System Configuration.- 9.2 Glass Separation.- 9.3 Plastics Separation.- 10 Digestion.- 10.1 Current Methods of Degradation.- 10.1.1 Composting.- 10.1.2 Land Disposal.- 10.2 Optimization of Degradation.- 10.3 Implications of Optimized Aerobic Landfill Degradation.- 10.3.1 Design of the In-Ground Digester (IGD).- 10.3.2 Heavy-Metal Control in the IGD.- 10.3.3 Control of Organic Contaminants in the IGD.- 10.3.4 Landfill Gas Implications.- 10.4 Processing of Degraded Waste.

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