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Environmental Sciences - Pollution and Remediation | Air Quality Control - Formation and Sources, Dispersion, Characteristics and Impact of Air Pollutants

Air Quality Control

Formation and Sources, Dispersion, Characteristics and Impact of Air Pollutants — Measuring Methods, Techniques for Reduction of Emissions and Regulations for Air Quality Control

Baumbach, G.

Translated by Grubinger-Rhodes, C.

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996, XIV, 490 pp. 244 figs.

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The problem of air quality control concerns a wide range of disciplines. This introductory book explains the origin of pollutants and their dispersion and transformation in the atmosphere, describes their effects on humans, animals, plants, and objects, and presents techniques for the reduction of emissions from a variety of sources.
Measuring techniques are emphasized because of their importance for the detection of pollutants and for monitoring the performance of emission control equipment. The closing chapter discusses international regulations for air quality control.
For all those interested in environmental protection this book is a highly readable introduction to the field of air pollution and air quality control. It serves as a useful textbok for teachers and students, and as a reference for practice-oriented work in industry, consultancies, administration, and environmental agencies. Günter Baumbach, born in 1948, is Professor of Air Quality Control at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. His fields of research cover emission reduction for combustion processes and experimental investigations of air pollutant dispersion in urban and rural areas. He holds lectures on air pollution prevention, air quality control, and measuring techniques.
Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: Application

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Luftreinhaltung - Umwelttechnik - air pollution - air quality - air quality control - atmosphere - control - emission - environment - environmental engineering - materials - pollution - pollution control - quality - quality control

Related subjects » Monitoring & Environmental Analysis - Pollution and Remediation

Table of contents 

1 General Overview.- 1.1 Clean Air and Air Pollution.- 1.2 Historical Overview.- 1.3 Explanation of Terms.- 1.4. Bibliography.- 2 Origin and Sources of Air Pollution.- 2.1 Emission of Pollutants Caused by Combustion Processes.- 2.1.1 Products of Complete and Incomplete Combustion.- 2.1.1.1 Carbon Monoxide.- 2.1.1.2 Hydrocarbons.- 2.1.1.3 Soot.- 2.1.1.4 Hydrocarbon Emissions in Different Combustion Processes.- 2.1.2 Sulfur Compounds.- 2.1.2.1 Sulfur in Coal.- 2.1.2.2 Sulfur in Fuel Oil.- 2.1.2.3 Sulfur in Natural Gas.- 2.1.2.4 Comparison of Sulfur Contents of Different Fuels.- 2.1.2.5 Combustion Products of Sulfurous Fuels.- 2.1.3 Oxides of Nitrogen.- 2.1.3.1 Origins of Oxides of Nitrogen.- 2.1.3.2 Nitrogen Oxide Emissions in Different Combustion Processes.- 2.1.4 Particles.- 2.1.4.1 Problem, Dependencies and Components.- 2.1.4.2 Soot and Particle Emissions during the Combustion of Liquid Fuels.- 2.1.4.3 Particle Emission in Industrial Coal Furnaces.- 2.1.4.4 Particle Emission in the Combustion of Lump Wood in Domestic Furnaces.- 2.1.5 Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans.- 2.1.5.1 Properties, Formation and Origin.- 2.1.5.2 Toxicity, Toxicity Equivalents and Threshold Values.- 2.1.5.3 Dioxin Sources.- 2.1.6 Exhaust Gases from Motorised Vehicles.- 2.1.6.1 Influences on their Formation.- 2.1.6.2 Exhaust Gas Emissions when Driving.- 2.1.6.3 Development of Motor Vehicle Emissions.- 2.2 Sources of Air Pollutants.- 2.2.1 Overview.- 2.2.2 Carbon Dioxide (C02).- 2.2.3 Sulfur Oxides (Sox).- 2.2.4 Nitrogen Oxides (Nox).- 2.2.5 Carbon Monoxide (CO).- 2.2.6 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC).- 2.3 Bibliography.- 3 Air Pollutants in the Atmosphere.- 3.1 Meteorological Influences on the Dispersion of Air Pollutants.- 3.1.1 Wind.- 3.1.2 Turbulence.- 3.1.3 Inversion.- 3.1.3.1 Inversion Types.- 3.1.3.2 Inversion Formation.- 3.1.4 Mixing Layer and Barrier Layers.- 3.1.5 Inversion Layers and Air Pollutants - Examples of the Dispersion of Pollutants.- 3.1.5.1 Widespread Dispersion of Air Pollutants: SO2 Long-Range Transport.- 3.1.5.2 Short-Range Dispersion of Air Pollutants in Highland Valleys.- 3.2 Chemical Transformations of Pollutants in the Atmosphere.- 3.2.1 General Considerations.- 3.2.1.1 Atmosphere and Air Pollution.- 3.2.1.2 Calculation of Reaction Rates.- 3.2.2 Oxidation of SO2.- 3.2.2.1 SO2 Oxidation in the Gas Phase.- 3.2.2.2 SO2 Conversion in Liquid Phase and on Solid Particles.- 3.2.3 Reactions of Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere.- 3.2.3.1 NO Oxidation and the Formation of Ozone.- 3.2.3.2 Participation of Hydrocarbons in NO Oxidation.- 3.2.3.3 NO2 Oxidation.- 3.2.3.4 NOx and Acid Rain.- 3.2.4 Ozone in the Atmosphere.- 3.2.4.1 Ozone in the Stratosphere.- 3.2.4.2 Ozone in the Troposphere.- 3.2.5 Carbon Compounds.- 3.2.5.1 Organic Carbon Compounds.- 3.2.5.2 Inorganic Carbon Compounds.- 3.2.6 Particles in the Atmosphere.- 3.2.7 Precipitation Components.- 3.3 Distribution and Temporal Development of Air Pollutants in Unpolluted and Polluted Areas.- 3.3.1 Spatial Distribution.- 3.3.2 Temporal Trends in Air Quality.- 3.3.2.1 Carbon Compounds.- 3.3.2.2 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).- 3.3.2.3 Suspended Particulate Matter.- 3.3.2.4 Nitrogen Oxides.- 3.3.2.5 Tropospheric Ozone (O3).- 3.4 Models of Pollutant Dispersion.- 3.4.1 Objective and Application of Mathematical Meteorological Simulation Models.- 3.4.2 Model Concepts.- 3.4.2.1 Flow and Turbulence Models.- 3.4.2.2 Modeling of Pollution Dispersion.- 3.4.3 Consideration of Chemical Transformations in Dispersion Models.- 3.4.4 Summary and Overview of Model Concepts.- 3.5 Bibliography.- 4 Effects of Air Pollution.- 4.1 General Considerations.- 4.1.1 The Range of Possible Types of Damage.- 4.1.2 The Path of Air Pollutants to the Location where they Become Effective.- 4.2 Climatic Changes Caused by Atmospheric Trace Substances.- 4.2.1 Temperature Increase.- 4.2.1.1 Destruction of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer.- 4.2.1.2 Greenhouse Effect of Infrared-Active Gases.- 4.2.2 Temperature Drop Due to Particle and Cloud Occurrence.- 4.2.3 Prognostic Difficulties.- 4.3 Effects on Materials.- 4.3.1 Mineral Building Materials.- 4.3.2 Metals.- 4.3.3 Other Materials.- 4.4 Effects on Vegetation.- 4.4.1 Plant Damage Caused by Air Pollution.- 4.4.1.1 Determination of Dose-Effect Relations.- 4.4.1.2 Damage Mechanisms and Profiles of Single Air Pollutants.- 4.4.2 Forest Damage.- 4.4.2.1 Damage Profiles.- 4.4.2.2 Assumed Mechanisms of Effect.- 4.5 Impact on Human Health.- 4.5.1 Possibilities and Difficulties of Recording Harmful Effects.- 4.5.2 Paths Air Pollutants Take in the Human Body.- 4.5.3 Effects of the Most Important Air Pollutants.- 4.6 Ambient Air Guidelines and Standards.- 4.6.1 Nature of WHO Guidelines.- 4.6.2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards.- 4.6.3 MIK Values of the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI = Association of German Engineers).- 4.6.3 Smog Alarm Values.- 4.7 Bibliography.- 5 Measuring Techniques for Recording Air Pollutants.- 5.1 General Criteria.- 5.1.1 Applications of Measuring Techniques.- 5.1.2 Discontinuous or Continuous Measurements.- 5.1.3 Physical and Chemical Measuring Principles.- 5.1.4 Different Requirements for Emission and Air Quality Measurements.- 5.1.5 Emission Components to be Recorded.- 5.1.6 Ambient Air Components to be Recorded.- 5.2 Measuring Methods for Gaseous Pollutants.- 5.2.1 Photometry.- 5.2.1.1 IR Photometer.- 5.2.1.2 UV Photometer.- 5.2.1.3 Long-Path Photometry.- 5.2.2 Colorimetry.- 5.2.3 UV Fluorescence.- 5.2.4 Chemiluminescence.- 5.2.4.1 NOx Measurement.- 5.2.4.2 O3 Measurement.- 5.2.5 Flame Photometry.- 5.2.6 Flame Ionization.- 5.2.7 Conductometry.- 5.2.8 Amperometry.- 5.2.9 Coulometry.- 5.2.10. Potentiometry.- 5.2.10.1 PH Measurement.- 5.2.10.2 HF and HC1 Measurement with Ion-Sensitive Electrodes.- 5.2.10.3 O2 Measurement with Solid-State Ion Conductor Zirconium Dioxide.- 5.2.11 Paramagnetic Oxygen Measurement.- 5.2.12 Measurement of Thermal Conductivity.- 5.2.13 Manual Analysis Methods.- 5.2.14 Chromatographic Techniques.- 5.2.14.1 Gas Chromatography.- 5.2.14.2 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.- 5.2.14.3 High Performance Liquid and Ion Chromatography.- 5.2.14.4 Determination of Highly Toxic Organic Compounds.- 5.2.15 Method for Determining Odorous Substances - Olfactometry.- 5.3 Measuring Methods for Particulate Matter.- 5.3.1 Gravimetric Determination of Particulate Matter in Exhaust Gases.- 5.3.2 Continuous Registration of the Flue Gas Particle Concentrations.- 5.3.3 Determination of the Soot Number of Furnace Flue Gases.- 5.3.4 Determination of Grain Size Distribution of Particles.- 5.3.5 Measurement of Particle Sedimentation in Ambient Air.- 5.3.6 Measurement of Particle Concentration in the Air.- 5.3.6.1 Filter Sampling Instruments.- 5.3.6.2 Automatically Recording Particle Concentration Measuring Instruments.- 5.3.7 Determination of Chemical Composition of Particulates.- 5.4 Setting up of Measuring Equipment, Sampling Techniques and their Influences on the Accuracy of the Measurements.- 5.4.1 Emission Measurements in Furnaces and Process Equipment.- 5.4.1.1 Location of Sampling.- 5.4.1.2 Setting up of the Site of Measurement - Sampling System.- 5.4.1.3 Possible Faults during Sampling.- 5.4.2 Emission Measurements for Motor Vehicles.- 5.4.2.1 Exhaust Gas Sampling and Measurement According to the CVS Method.- 5.4.2.2 Various Driving Cycles.- 5.4.3 Ambient Air Measurements.- 5.4.3.1 Significance of the Locations of Measuring Sites.- 5.4.3.2 Sampling Systems in Measuring Stations.- 5.4.3.3 Set-up of Air Quality Measuring Stations - Example of a Forest Measuring Station.- 5.5 Calibration for Pollutant Measurements.- 5.5.1 Definitions.- 5.5.2 Calibration Gases.- 5.5.2.1 Static Methods for the Production of Calibration Gases.- 5.5.2.2 Dynamic Methods - the Mixing of Volume Flows.- 5.5.2.3 Example of a Calibration Gas Production.- 5.5.2.4 Difficulties in the Production of Calibration Gas.- 5.5.3 Significance of the Calibration.- 5.6 Accuracy of Measuring Methods and Measuring Instruments.- 5.6.1 Overview of Characteristic Values.- 5.6.2 Linearity of the Calibration Function and Sensitivity.- 5.6.3 Interference.- 5.6.4 Determination of the Efficiency of Measuring Methods by Ring Tests.- 5.6.5 Fault Consideration using the Example of a Complete Emission Measurement.- 5.7 Bibliography.- 6 Evaluation of Air Pollution Measurements.- 6.1 Determination of Pollutant Emissions.- 6.1.1 Detection of Pollutant Emissions from Concentration Measurements of Exhaust Gases.- 6.1.1.1 Emission Flows and Emission Factors.- 6.1.2 Calculation of Pollutant Emissions from Fuel Properties.- 6.1.2.1 Sulfur Dioxide.- 6.1.2.2 Nitrogen Oxides.- 6.1.2.3 Products of Incomplete Combustion (PIC).- 6.1.2.4 Heavy Metal Emissions in Oil Furnaces.- 6.1.3 Registering Pollutant Emissions of an Area in Emission Inventories.- 6.1.3.1 Spatial Pollutant Distribution.- 6.1.3.2 Determination of Pollutant Emissions of Motor Vehicle Traffic.- 6.1.3.3 Pollutant Emissions of Domestic Furnaces and Small-Scale Industries.- 6.1.3.4 Pollutant Emissions from Industries.- 6.1.3.5 Summary of Annual Emissions.- 6.1.3.6 Temporal Pollutant Distribution.- 6.2 Evaluation and Graphic Representation of Air Quality Measurements...- 6.2.1 Temporal Resolution and Mean Value Formation.- 6.2.2 Summary and Graphic Representation of Measuring Data from Continuous Measurements.- 6.2.2.1 Unsmoothed Monthly Profiles.- 6.2.2.2 Mean Value Calculation for Smog Warnings.- 6.2.2.3 Diurnal Courses.- 6.2.2.4 Long-Term Annual Profiles.- 6.2.3 Frequency Distribution.- 6.2.4 Spatial Distribution of Pollutants.- 6.2.4.1 Method of Determination and Graphic Representation.- 6.2.5 Methods for the Investigation of Consistent Patterns in the Occurrence of Pollutants.- 6.2.5.1 Mean Diurnal Courses.- 6.2.5.2 Correlation Calculations.- 6.2.5.3 Pollutant Wind Roses: Pollutant-Wind Correlations.- 6.2.5.4 Abatement Curves.- 6.3 Bibliography.- 7 Emission Control Technologies.- 7.1 General Considerations.- 7.1.1 Process Modification.- 7.1.2 Emission Control for Furnaces.- 7.1.2.1 Products of Incomplete Combustion.- 7.1.2.2 Particulates.- 7.1.2.3 Nitrogen Oxides.- 7.1.2.4 Sulfur Dioxide.- 7.1.3 Efficiency of Exhaust Gas Purification Systems.- 7.2 Processes for the Removal of Particulate Matter from Exhaust Gases....- 7.2.1 Inertial Collectors.- 7.2.1.1 Inertial Force Particle Collectors.- 7.2.1.2 Centrifugal Force Particle Collectors.- 7.2.2 Wet Scrubbers.- 7.2.2.1 Principles of Wet Scrubbing.- 7.2.2.2 Different Types of Wet Scrubbers.- 7.2.3 Electrostatic Precipitators.- 7.2.3.1 Operating Principle.- 7.2.3.2 Mode of Operation.- 7.2.3.3 Precipitation Equation.- 7.2.3.4 Constructions.- 7.2.4 Filters.- 7.2.4.1 Tube Filters.- 7.2.4.2 Baghouse Filters.- 7.3 Nitrogen Oxide Reduction in Combustion Processes.- 7.3.1 Primary Measures in Furnaces.- 7.3.1.1 Reducing Air Excess.- 7.3.1.2 Stage Combustion, Multiple-Stage Mixing Burner and Top Air Nozzles.- 7.3.1.3 Slight Air Preheating.- 7.3.1.4 Reduction of the Volume-Specific Combustion Chamber Load.- 7.3.1.5 Flue-Gas Recirculation.- 7.3.1.6 Low-NOx Burners.- 7.3.1.7 NOx Reduction Potential of Primary Measures.- 7.3.2 Secondary Measures in Furnaces.- 7.3.2.1 Reduction Processes.- 7.3.2.2 Oxidation Processes.- 7.3.3 Catalytic Converter Technology for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Other Components in Automotive Exhaust Gases.- 7.4 Flue Gas Desulfurization.- 7.4.1 Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization.- 7.4.2 Semi-Dry Processes - Spray Absorption Technique.- 7.4.3 Wet Desulfurization Processes.- 7.4.3.1 Lime Scrubbing Processes.- 7.4.3.2 Other Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Processes.- 7.5 Diagram of the Flue Gas Purification Units of a Power Plant.- 7.6 Present Situation of Flue Gas Purification in West German Power Plants.- 7.7 Removal of Organic Substances from Flue Gases.- 7.7.1 Overview of the Processes.- 7.7.2 Condensation.- 7.7.3 Absorption.- 7.7.3.1 Physical Absorption.- 7.7.3.2 Chemical Absorption.- 7.7.3.3 Biological Waste Air Purification - Bioscrubbing and Biofiltration.- 7.7.4 Adsorption.- 7.7.5 Combustion.- 7.7.5.1 Thermal Afterburning.- 7.7.5.2 Catalytic Afterburning.- 7.7.6 Membrane Processes.- 7.8 Bibliography.- 8 Air Pollution Control Conventions, Laws and Regulations.- 8.1 International Conventions.- 8.2 EU Directives.- 8.3 National Laws and Regulations.- 8.3.1 US Air Pollution Laws and Regulations.- 8.3.2 German Laws and Regulations.- 8.3.2.1 Plants Requiring Official Permission.- 8.3.2.2 Plants Exempted from Official Permission.- 8.3.2.3 Product-Related Air Pollution Prevention.- 8.3.2.4 Area-Related Air Pollution Prevention.- 8.4 Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.- 8.5 Bibliography.

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