Developing Efficient Strategies for the Reduction of Ozone Precursor Emissions in Europe
Friedrich, Rainer, Reis, Stefan (Eds.)
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000, XXIV, 237 pp. 104 figs., 62 tabs.
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The book offers information and aids in decision-making to those concerned with air pollution. It covers the analysis of ozone precursor emissions and the transport and chemical transformation of precursor substances and gives insight into the integrated assessment of air pollution control strategies.
The occurrence of high concentrations of ozone during summer episodes in the troposphere over Europe is a problem still unsolved. Although a number· of measures have been implemented that will achieve a further reduction of precursor emissions in the next years, this will not be sufficient to reduce the ozone concentration to levels below thresholds set up to protect human health and plants. Thus, further reductions of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides are necessary. However, with regard to the increasing costs associated with increasing emission reduction, it is essential to implement abatement strategies, that are effective, i.e. achieving the environmental aim set up, and efficient, i. e. doing this with the least costs possible. In this book, the authors describe the features and the application of a methodology and a model system to identify effective and efficient strategies to reduce ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone to comply with thresholds set up to protect human health, agricultural crops and ecosystems. Furthermore, macroeconomic impacts of such strategies are addressed and, as burden and benefits of these strategies are not equally distributed between countries, different burden sharing schemes are discussed. The content of this book is based on results of a comprehensive research project, the project INFOS (assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe), funded by the European Commission (Directorate General XII) under the Fourth Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Air pollution - Europe - Scale - air quality - chemistry - emission - environment - environmental policy - health - ozone - pollution - transport - vegetation
1 Introduction.- 2 Tropospheric Ozone.- 2.1 Tropospheric Chemistry and Ozone Precursor Substances.- 2.1.1 Ozone Formation in the Troposphere.- 2.1.2 Anthropogenic Emissions of Ozone Precursor Substances.- 2.1.3 Biogenic Emissions of Ozone Precursors.- 2.1.4 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dispersion.- 2.2 Impacts on Health and Vegetation.- 2.2.1 Effects on Human Health.- 2.2.2 Impacts on Agricultural Crops and Forests.- 2.2.3 The Concept of Critical Levels and Loads.- 2.2.4 Source-Receptor Relationships.- 2.2.5 Limit Values and Cumulative Approaches.- 2.3 Air Quality Legislation, Thresholds and Standards.- 2.3.1 Legislative Overview.- 2.3.2 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.- 2.3.3 World Health Organisation.- 2.3.4 European Union.- 2.4 Tropospheric Ozone — a Local or Regional Problem?.- 2.4.1 Local Ozone Formation and Transboundary Transport.- 2.4.2 Urban and Rural Areas.- 2.4.3 Exceedances of Thresholds and Limit Values.- 2.5 References.- 3 Emissions of Ozone Precursors.- 3.1 Source Sector Analysis.- 3.1.1 Sources of NOx Emissions.- 3.1.2 Sources of NMVOC Emissions.- 3.2 Country analysis.- 3.2.1 Emissions per Country and Sector.- 3.2.2 Per Capita Emissions.- 3.2.3 Time Series Analysis.- 3.3 References.- 4 Emission Abatement Measures.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Road Transport Sector.- 4.2.1 Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicles — Gasoline.- 4.2.2 Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicles — Diesel.- 4.2.3 Heavy-Duty Vehicles — Diesel.- 4.2.4 Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles.- 4.2.5 Techno—Economic Profiles of Measures for Road Transport.- 4.3 Energy Sector.- 4.3.1 Techno—Economic Profile of Measures for the Energy Sector….- 4.4 Solvent Use Sector.- 4.4.1 Techno-Economic Profiles of Measures for the Solvent Sector..- 4.5 Conclusions.- 4.6 References.- Acknowledgement.- 5 Scenarios of Future Development.- 5.1 Methodology for Emission Projection.- 5.1.1 Approach.- 5.1.2 Emission Projection — Basic Methodology.- 5.2 Driving Forces of Emission Development.- 5.2.1 Societal and Demographic Trends.- 5.2.2 Economic Trends.- 5.2.3 Energy Trends.- 5.3 Political and Legislative Framework.- 5.3.1 Sectoral Air Pollution Control Policies.- 5.3.2 Legislation on Specific Substances.- 5.4 Detailed Sectoral Projection.- 5.4.1 Emissions from the Energy Sector.- 5.4.2 Emissions from Residential and Commercial Combustion.- 5.4.3 Emissions from Industrial Combustion.- 5.4.4 Emissions from Industry Processes.- 5.4.5 Emissions from Fuel Handling.- 5.4.6 Emissions from Solvent Use.- 5.4.7 Emissions from Road Transport.- 5.4.8 Emissions from Other Mobile Sources.- 5.4.9 Emissions from Waste Handling.- 5.4.10 Emissions from Agriculture.- 5.5 Trend Scenario Emissions.- 5.6 References.- 6 Regional Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Models.- 6.3 Emission Input to Models.- 6.4 Statistics Used.- 6.5 Model Calculations: 1990 Base and 2010 Trend Case.- 6.5.1 Base-Case 1990 and Trend 2010 Scenario, 5 yr Average.- 6.5.2 Comparison of Models: Trend 2010 Scenario.- 6.6 Model Calculations: Sector-by-Sector Emission Scenarios.- 6.6.1 Emission Control Measures, SNAP sectors 1-10.- 6.6.2 Road Traffic Measures.- 6.7 Country-to-Country Calculations.- 6.8 Summary and Conclusions.- 6.9 References.- 7 Optimising Regional Ozone Reduction Strategies.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The OMEGA Model.- 7.2.1 Inputs to the Optimisation.- 7.2.2 An Optimised Solution?.- 7.3 OMEGA Model Results.- 7.4 Evaluation of Optimisation Results.- 7.5 Modelled Exceedance Statistics of Ozone Thresholds.- 7.6 Summary and Conclusions.- 7.7 References.- Acknowledgements.- 8 Tropospheric Ozone and Urban Air Quality.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Ambient Ozone Concentrations in Selected Mesoscale Areas.- 8.2.1 Emission Estimates.- 8.2.2 Ambient Concentrations of Tropospheric Ozone in Athens.- 8.2.3 Ambient Concentrations of Tropospheric Ozone in Stuttgart….- 8.2.4 Ambient Concentrations of Tropospheric Ozone in Milan.- 8.3 Conclusions.- 8.4 References.- 9 Efficiency, Equity and Burden-Sharing.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Efficiency.- 9.2.1 Permit Trading and Pollution Characteristics.- 9.2.2 Ozone Control Problem.- 9.2.3 Iterative Zonal Permit Trading.- 9.2.4 Illustrative Example.- 9.3 Equity and Burden-Sharing.- 9.3.1 Underlying Principles.- 9.3.2 Institutional Framework.- 9.3.3 Calculation of Transfer Payments.- 9.4 Discussion.- 9.5 References.- 9.6 Appendix.- 10 Macroeconomic Impacts of Abatement Strategies.- 10.1 Objective.- 10.2 Model Description.- 10.3 Model Calculations.- 10.3.1 Scenario Definition.- 10.3.2 Model Results.- 10.4 Effects on Import and Export.- 10.5 Summary and Outlook.- 10.6 References.- 11 Summary and Conclusions.