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Integrates knowledge on a major piece of European policy (nature conservation policy) in a reflexive and comprehensive manner
Combines theories of governance with theories of legitimacy
Brings together empirical case studies and critical commentaries
This volume focuses on the issue of legitimacy in the context of European nature conservation policy. It provides insights in the way in which democratic legitimacy is being ‘produced’ at different levels of governance. Building forth upon recent developments in democracy theory that have identified multiple forms of legitimacy, the volume observes a EU-wide shift from output legitimacy to input and throughput legitimacy. Top down policy making is increasingly meeting
local resistance. As a result, the importance for policy makers of enhancing the democratic legitimacy of their policy plans has increased. The popularity of deliberative decision-making procedures can be seen as a procedural answer to this state of affairs.
For this volume scholars from within the EU were invited to reflect upon the question whether similar developments are taking place in the context with which they are most familiar. Do they perceive a delegitimation of top down policy making and hence an increasing emphasis on procedural legitimacy in processes of nature conservation policy implementation? Which model of democratic decision-making is most helpful to solve the issue of legitimacy in the field of nature conservation policy? How important are national traditions and institutions? What are the tradeoffs between the different types of legitimacy?
Nine case studies are presented: two case studies on protected species (geese in the Netherlands, and the great cormorant in Denmark, France and Italy), four case studies that zoom in on specific protected areas (in Spain, Finland, Poland and the UK), and three case studies with a focus on the implementation of Natura 2000 at the country level (Belgium, France and Germany). These case studies are followed by extensive comments.
PART 1: INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1: European Nature Conservation Policy Making
From Substantive to Procedural Sources of Legitimacy
Ewald Engelen, Jozef Keulartz & Gilbert Leistra
PART 2: COUNTRIES
Chapter 2: Endangered Legitimacy
Nature Policy in Flanders: Messy Participation Strategies
Dirk Bogaert & Pieter Leroy
Chapter 3: Nature Policy in Flanders
Messy Participation or Unfavourable circumstances?
Comments by Erik van Zadelhoff
Chapter 4: Between European Injunction and Local Consultation
Analyzing the Territorialization Process for a Public Nature Conservation Initiative in France
Chapter 5: The Local Implementation of Nature Policy
Deliberative Democracy or Interest Politics?
Comments by Henk van den Belt
Chapter 6: Legitimacy of Biodiversity Policies in a Multi-Level Setting
The Case of Germany
Chapter 7: Are Conflicts of Nature Distributive Conflicts?
Comments by Michiel Korthals
PART 3: PROTECTED AREAS
Chapter 8: Creation of a Bottom-up Nature Conservation Policy in Poland
The Case of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski & Jaroslaw Krogulec
Chapter 9: Nature Conservation in Poland and the Netherlands
Bottom-up or Bottom Line?
Comments by Henny van der Windt
Chapter 10:Legitimacy Problems in Spanish Nature Policy
The case of Donana
Susana Aguilar Fernandez
Chapter 11: How to Deal With Legitimacy in Nature Conservation Policy?
Comments by Jan van Tatenhove
Chapter 12: Resistance to Top-down Conservation Policy and the Search for New Participatory Models
The Case of Bergö-Malax´ Outer Archipelago in Finland
Chapter 13: Visions and Scales of Nature and Society in Nature Management
Comments by Jacques Swart
Chapter 14: Conservation in Context: A View from Below
Implementation of Conservation Policies on the North York Moors
Elizabeth Oughton & Jane Wheelock
Chapter 15: Towards governance and procedural sources of legitimacy?
Comments by Marielle van der Zouwen
PART 4: PROTECTED SPECIES
Chapter 16: Wintering Geese in the Netherlands… Legitimate Policy?
Gilbert Leistra, Jozef Keulartz & Ewald Engelen
Chapter 17: Vindicating Arrogant Ecologists
Comments by Wim Dubbink
Chapter 18: Legitimacy of Species Management
The Great Cormorant in the EU
Felix Rauschmayer & Vivien Behrens
Chapter 19: Animal Governance
The Cormorant Case
Comments by Hub Zwart
PART 5: CONCLUSIONS
Chapter 20: European Union Environmental Policy and Natura 2000
From Adoption to Revision