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Environmental Sciences - Global Change - Climate Change | Swarm Planning - The Development of a Planning Methodology to Deal with Climate Adaptation

Swarm Planning

The Development of a Planning Methodology to Deal with Climate Adaptation

Series: Springer Theses

Roggema, Rob

2014, XXIX, 286 p. 130 illus., 100 illus. in color.

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  • Opens a new, more flexible way of thinking about how to plan for and respond to climate adaptation, based on the behavior of swarms in nature
  • Emphasizes new approaches to spatial design and planning which anticipate future uncertainty
  • Offers many examples using the Swarm Planning Framework to design landscapes
  • Richly illustrated with color maps and images

This book shows that the problem of climate adaptation, which is described in social planning terms as ‘wicked,’ is at odds with the contemporary practice of spatial planning. The author proposes a new adjusted framework which is more adaptable to unpredictable, wicked, dynamic and non-linear processes. The inspiration for this new method is the behaviour of swarms: bees, ants, birds and fish are capable of self-organization, which enables the system to become less vulnerable to sudden environmental changes. The framework proposed in Swarm Planning consists of these four elements: Two levels of complexity, the first being the whole system and the second its individual components. Each of these has different attributes for adapting to change. Five layers, consisting of networks, focal points, unplanned space, natural resources and emerging occupation patterns. Each layer has its own spatial dynamic, and each is connected to a spatial scale. Non-linear processes, which emerge in different parts of the framework and include emerging patterns, connectedness and tipping points among others. Two planning processes; the first, ‘from small to large’ works upward from the slowest changing elements to more rapidly-changing ones. The second, ‘on the list of partners’ addresses each layer from networks through emerging occupation patterns. Swarm Planning applies this framework to a series of pilot studies, and appraises its performance using criteria for an adaptive landscape. The results show that the use of the Swarm Planning Framework reduces the vulnerability of landscapes as well as the impact of climate hazards and disasters, improves response to unexpected hazards and contains adaptation strategies.

“This book is a must for planners in government and the private sector as it outlines the concept, strategies and techniques for swarm planning. It is also an important guide for policymakers looking to engage communities in a dialogue about the adaptation planning process.”

Professor John Martin, La Trobe University

“The ultimate value of the book lies in encouraging the planning community to consider options that go far beyond those offered by business-as-usual planning methodologies developed for a set of operating conditions that are fast becoming obsolete. As such it makes an important and much needed contribution to the field.”

Assistant Professor Dr. Chrisna du Plessis, University of Pretoria

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Climate Adaptation - Landscape Architecture - Spatial Planning - Swarm Planning - adaptive landscapes

Related subjects » Geography - Global Change - Climate Change - Sustainable Development

Table of contents 

Table of Contents





Chapter One

Introduction, Methodology, Limitations

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Climate Change

1.3 Climate Adaptation

1.4 Spatial Planning

1.5 Complexity and Time Horizons

1.6 Problem Statement, Objective, Point of Departure and Research Questions

1.7 Methodology

1.8 Limitations

1.9 Key Concepts and Timeline

1.10 The Chapters

The Bridge: One-Two


Chapter Two

Towards a Spatial Planning Framework for Climate Adaptation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Problem Statement

2.3 Objective

2.4 Methodology

2.5 Literature Review

2.5.1 Adaptive and Dynamic Approaches in Spatial Planning

2.5.2 The Spatial Properties of Complex Adaptive Systems

2.6 The Framework

2.6.1 Aggregated Spatial Elements

2.6.2 Definition of Time Rhythms: Layers

2.6.3 Linking Spatial Elements with Layers

2.7 Validation

2.7.1 Prevailing Regional Plan

2.7.2 A Climate-Adaptive Regional Plan

2.7.3 Conclusion

2.8 Discussion

2.9 Conclusion

The Bridge: Two-Three


Chapter Three

Developing a Planning Theory for Wicked Problems: Swarm Planning

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Problem Statement

3.3 Approach

3.4 Current Planning Paradigms

3.4.1 A Selection of Prevailing Planning Paradigms

3.4.2 A review of Two Years of Planning Journals

3.5 Exploring Complexity

3.5.1 Complexity Theory

3.5.2 Cities as Complex Systems

3.5.3 Use of Complexity in Planning

3.5.4 Proposition: Swarm Planning

3.5.5 Bendigo

3.6 Conclusion

The Bridge: Three-Four


Chapter Four

Incremental Change, Transition or Transformation? Optimising Change Pathways for Climate Adaptation in Spatial Planning

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Research Approach

4.3 Analysis of Change Processes

4.3.1 Incremental Change

4.3.2 Transition

4.3.3 Transformation

4.4 Comparison

4.4.1 Criteria

4.4.2 Comparison

4.5 Theorising Transformation

4.6 Signals

4.6.1 Early Warning

4.6.2 Creation

4.7 Application in the Peat Colonies

4.8 Conclusion

The Bridge: Four-Five


Chapter Five

The Use of Spatial Planning to Increase the Resilience for Future Turbulence in the Spatial System of the Groningen Region to Deal with Climate Change

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Background

5.2.1 Climate Change

5.2.2 Challenges of Complexity in Planning

5.3 The Groningen Case

5.3.1 Understanding the System: Mapping Climate and Energy Potentials

5.3.2 Improving Resilience: Use of Swarm Planning Paradigm

5.3.3 Strategic Interventions: the Groningen Impulses

5.3.4 Steer the Swarm

5.4 The Groningen Case Discussed

5.4.1 Mapping

5.4.2 Idea Map

5.4.3 Interventions

5.4.4 In the Real World

5.5 Conclusions

The Bridge: Five-Six


Chapter Six

Swarming Landscapes, New Pathways for Resilient Cities

6.1 Introduction

6.2  Dealing with Uncertainty

6.3 Swarms

6.4 Complex Adaptive Spatial Systems

6.5 Swarm Planning

6.6 Swarm Planning Example: Floodable Landscape

6.7 Conclusion and Discussion

The Bridge: Six-Seven


Chapter Seven

Quadruple the Potential: Scaling the Energy Supply

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Supra-Regional Scale: North Netherlands

7.3 The Regional Scale: Groningen

7.4 The City-Neighbourhood Scale: Almere East and Hoogezand

7.4.1 Almere East

7.4.2 Hoogezand: The Green Campaign

7.4.3 Experiences with Energy Potential Studies

7.5 The Building Scale: River House Mildura

7.6 Interdependencies

7.7  Discussion

The Bridge: Seven-Eight


Chapter Eight

Beyond the Ordinary: Innovative Spatial Energy Framework Offers Perspectives on Increased Energy and Carbon Objectives

8.1 Introduction

8.2  Problem

8.3 Hypothesis

8.4 State of the Art in Renewable Energy Thinking

8.5 Energy and Spatial Planning: an Underestimated Relationship

8.6 Towards an Innovative Methodology: the Groningen Case

8.6.1 Energy Potential Mapping (EPM)

8.6.2 Conceptual Design

8.6.3 Swarm Planning

8.6.4 Findings

8.7 Conclusions

The Bridge: Eight-Nine


Chapter Nine

Swarm Planning for Climate Change: An Alternative Pathway for Resilience

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Methodology

9.3 Analysis

9.3.1 Climate Change

9.3.2 Spatial Planning

9.4 Problem Statement

9.5 Swarm Planning

9.5.1 Complexity

9.5.2 The Layer Approach

9.5.3 Key Elements of Swarm Planning

9.5.4 Application of the Theory

9.6 Comparing Regular Planning with Swarm Planning

9.6.1 The Province of Groningen Regional Plan Zero-Fossil Region Findings

9.6.2 The Peat Colonies Agenda for the Peat Colonies Net Carbon-Capture Landscape Findings

9.7 Conclusion and Discussion

The Bridge: Nine-Ten


Chapter Ten

Conclusion, Discussion and Recommendations

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Research Questions

10.3 Primary Research Question One: Developing a Planning Framework

10.3.1 Research Question A

10.3.2 Research Question B

10.3.3 Research Question C

10.3.4 Research Question D

10.3.5 Summary of the Findings PRQ1

10.4 Primary Research Question Two: Application of the Planning Framework

10.4.1 Research Question E

10.4.2 Research Question F

10.4.3 Research Question G

10.4.4 Research Question H

10.4.5 Additional Analysis: The Bendigo Design

10.4.6 BAU and Swarm Planning Compared

10.4.7 Summary of the Findings PRQ2

10.5 Swarm Planning Framework

10.6 Discussion

10.6.1 Limitations of the Framework

10.6.2 Use and Outcomes of the Framework

10.6.3 Weaknesses of the Framework

10.6.4 Reflection on Research Process

10.6.5 Final Recommendations

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