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The book underlines the recent research on the topic of heat stress and animal productivity
Effect of the phenomenon of climate change on the animal productivity has been discussed in detail
The book increasingly looks for the solutions for combating the effects of climate-induced temperature rise on animals
New and advanced strategies for ameliorating heat stress are discussed in detail
The book is on livestock with specific reference to heat stress and its alleviation. The topic is very pertinent in light of the impacts of climate change on livestock production and health. Work related to effect of heat stress on animal productivity, immunity and hormonal levels is discussed in detail. Heat stress occurs in animals when there is an imbalance between heat production within the body and its dissipation. Thermoregulation is the means by which an animal maintains its body temperature. Under heat stress, a number of physiological and behavioral responses vary in intensity and duration in relation to the animal genetic make-up and environmental factors. In response to stress, mammals set physical, biochemical, and physiological processes into play to try and counteract the negative effects of heat stress and maintain thermal equilibrium.
Adaptation to heat stress requires the physiological integration of many organs and systems viz. endocrine, cardiorespiratory and immune system. Heat stress also lowers natural immunity making animals more vulnerable to disease in the following days and weeks. The decrease in fertility is caused by elevated body temperature that influences ovarian function, estrous expression, oocyte health, and embryonic development.
The increasing concern with the thermal comfort of dairy cows is justifiable not only for countries occupying tropical zones, but also for nations in temperate zones in which high ambient temperatures are becoming an issue. Improving milk production is, therefore, an important tool for improving the quality of life particularly for rural people in developing countries. The environmental conditions necessitate reduction of heat stress due to solar radiation and heat.
The book discusses all these aspects in detail. Recent works related to effect of heat stress on animal productivity, immunity and hormonal levels are also discussed in the book. Information on biological rhythm is also included. The book also discusses the methods for alleviation of heat stress in livestock, especially cows and buffaloes. It is be a ready reckoner for students, researchers, and academia and would pave way for further research.
CHAPTER 1 Thermoregulation.- 1. Introduction.-2. Thermoneutral zone.- 3. Heat stress indicators.- 4. Adaptation to high temperature.- 5. Thermoregulatory mechanisms.- 6. Response to heat stress.- 6.1Water vaporization.- 6.2 Physical responses.- 6.3 Sweating and panting.- 7.Heat production.- 8. Heat Increment.- 9. Assessment of Adaptability.- 10.Genetic adaptations/cellular changes during heat stress.- 11.Genetic improvement for adaptation.- 12. Genomic responses during acclimation.-
CHAPTER 2 Heat stress and Hormones.- 1.Introduction.- 2.Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).- 3.Cortisol.- 4. Insulin.- 5. Insulin like growth hormone 1 (IGF-I).- 6.Growth hormone.- 7.Aldosterone.- 8.Adiponectin and leptin.- 9.Reproductive hormones.- 10.Catecholamines.- 11.Prolactin.-
CHAPTER 3 Heat Stress and Milk Production.- 1.Introduction.- 2.Effect of climatic variables on milk yield.- 3. Behavior of cows during heat stress.-4.Effect of heat stress on bovine somatotropin (bST) administered cows.- 5.Metabolic heat production.- 6.Role of Acclimation during heat stress.- 7.Metabolic Adaptations to Heat Stress.- 8.Mechanism by which heat stress reduces milk production.- 9.Mechanism of regulation of milk secretion and mammary function.- 10. Heat Stress Effects on Heifers.-11.Genetic factors regulating response to heat stress.- 12.Reducing Heat Stress in dairy animals.- 13.Effect of heat stress on milk production in Buffaloes.- CHAPTER 4 Heat stress and Reproduction.-
1. Introduction.- 2. The effect of heat stress on reproductive functions.-
3. The effect of heat stress on the hypothalamic hypophyseal ovarian axis.- 4.Female reproduction.- 4.1 Ovarian follicle.- 4.2 Steroid production.- 4.3 The oocyte.- 4.4 Embryonic development.- 4.5 Fetal development.- 4.6 Uterine environment.- 5.Male reproduction.- 6.Effect of heat stress on reproduction by altering energy balance.- 7. Genetic plasticity controlling the magnitude of heat stress effects.-8.Consequences of action of climate change on reproduction for species survival and distribution.- 9.Reproduction in buffaloes .- 10.Management and production systems that can improve fertility during summer months.-
CHAPTER 5 Heat stress and immune function.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Innate and adaptive immunity.- 3 Heat stress and Cell-mediated immunity.-
4 Regulation of stress response.- 4.1 Role of glucocorticoids and catecholamines.- 4.2 Role of cytokines.- 4.3 Role of stress hormones.-
5 Acute and Chronic Stressors .- 6 Mechanism of action of heat stress on immunity .- 7 Nutrition and immunity.- 7.1 Vitamins.- 7.2 minerals.- 8 Effect of free radical production on immunity and role of antioxidants.-
CHAPTER 6 Biological Rhythms.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Circadian timekeeping mechanisms.- 2.1 Biological clock.- 3. Daily rhythms.- 4. Annual rhythms.-
5. Functions of sleep.- 6. Pineal gland and melatonin.- 6.1 Synthesis and metabolism of melatonin.- 6.2 Melatonin receptors.- 6.3 Daily rhythm of melatonin .- 6.4 Annual rhythm of melatonin.- 7. Cortisol.- 7.1 Daily rhythm of cortisol.- 7.2 Annual rhythm of cortisol.- 8. Leptin.- 8.1 Daily rhythm of leptin.- 8.2 Annual rhythm of leptin.- 9. Lipid metabolism.- 9.1Lipid metabolism in ruminants.- 9.2 Daily rhythms of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol.- 9.3 Seasonal variation of lipid metabolism.- 10. Feeding entrained circadian rhythms.- 11. Circadian clocks as mediators of the homeorhetic response to lactation.- 12. Oxidative stress.- 13.Circadian rhythm of cardiovascular parameters.- CHAPTER 7 Shelter Management for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Cows and Buffaloes.- 1. Introduction.-
2. Heat transfer and concentration and emission of harmful gases in dairy buildings.- 3. Cooling methods for alleviation of heat stress.- 3.1 Provision of shade.- 3.2 Ceiling fans.- 3.3 Evaporative cooling.