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Evaluates particular methods for quantifying the seasonal changes in ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes
Case studies and literature reviews complement classroom use
Interdisciplinary text crosses the traditional boundaries of natural, social and economic sciences
Changes in the seasonal timing of ecosystem carbon, water and energy exchange are key sources of variation in biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Referencing this variability to traditional phenological events, such as bud break or flowering, introduces additional uncertainty with little mechanistic relationship to the process of interest. Instead, the seasonal cycles of each process must be understood in the context of biological and environmental factors that affect it. Some processes, like photosynthesis, are represented with high degree of realism and accuracy in several existing ecosystem process models, whereas others still have significant uncertainties. This volume summarizes the current understanding of the seasonality of ecosystem carbon and water cycles in the temperate and boreal zones using eight case studies, highlighting sources of variability, necessary additional measurements and novel ways to analyze existing datasets. It also includes syntheses of the interaction between water and carbon fluxes as mediated by constraints from plant anatomy to the ecosystem level. This book is intended as a reference for researchers and graduate students in ecosystem ecology, modeling, climate change, phenology and land surface phenology, and as supplementary material for advanced courses in ecosystem or community ecology and biometeorology.
About the editor:
Asko Noormets is Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, North Carolina State University.
Introduction.- Section I: The Seasonal Dynamics of Ecosystem C and H2O Exchange: Links Between Aboveground and Belowground Processes of Respiration As Affected by Phenology.- Partitioning ER to Ra and Rh.- Evapotranspiration and Energy Partitioning.- The Timing of Seasonal Transitions in GEP and ER in a Hardwood and Conifer Chronosequence, and the Effect of Moisture Dynamics.- Interannual Variation in Spring and Fall Transitions in ET and NEE.- Delineating Phenological Signal in Time-Series Data.- Upper vs. Understory Phenology and its Significance for H2O and C Exchange.- Seasonal and Annual Variation in Ecosystem Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Grassland of the Northern Great Plains.- Section II: Remote Sensing Phenology: Overview of the Basics of Index Development, Successes, Challenges. Goals and Compromises; Integration of Scales.- Local Heterogeneity and Validating Remote Sensing Phenology Indices.- The Applicability of MODIS Phenology Indices, Strengths and Weaknesses.- Synthesis – State-of-the-Science and Remaining Challenges.- Index.