Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000, XX, 308 pp. 49 figs., 80 tabs.
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First book which covers all aspects of anthropogenic PGE emissions and their consequences for man and environment
Since the implementation of catalysts containing platinum-group-elements (PGE) for the control of vehicle emissions in 1975, a controversial discussion has begun on PGE emissions and eventual consequences for the environment. However, a comprehensive overview of the various works and results in different scientific areas is still lacking. This book covers, for the first time, all aspects of anthropogenic PGE emissions and their consequences for man and environment. The interdisciplinary approach is substantiated by contributions from the fields of environmental geosciences, analytical chemistry, biology and occupational medicine. The articles mirror the actual status of scientific work and discuss environmentally related topics. Modern analytical methods for various environmental matrices as well as models of the current and future geochemical behaviour of PGE in the environment are presented. Bioavailability and toxicological and allergic potentials are discussed. The book aims at the broad community inside the environmentally related sciences (geosciences, chemistry, biology, medicine). Students, scientists and practitioners will have a comprehensive overview of this fast growing field of science.
1 Sources of PGE emissions.- 1.1 The automobile catalyst as an important source of PGE in the environment.- 1.2 Sources and sinks of anthropogenic platinum fluxes.- 1.3 Traffic-borne platinum pollution in municipal sewage treatment plants.- 1.4 Engine test bench experiments to determine platinum emissions from three-way catalytic converters.- 2 Occurrence, geochemical behaviour and fate in the environment.- 2.1 Environmental PGE contamination in Southwest Germany.- 2.2 Changes in platinum concentrations in soils and dusts from UK cities.- 2.3 Biomonitoring of platinum immissions from motor vehicles.- 2.4 Anthropogenic emission of platinum-group elements (Pt, Pd and Rh) into the environment: concentration, distribution and geochemical behaviour in soils.- 2.5 Routes for bioaccumulation and transformation of platinum in the urban environment.- 2.6 Platinum bioaccumulation in plants and overview of the situation for palladium and rhodium.- 2.7 Determinants of the phytotoxicity of platinum.- 2.8 A contribution to the enology and ecology of noble metals.- 3 Analytical methods for PGE in the environment.- 3.1 Preconcentration/separation methods for the determination of trace platinum in environmental samples by ICP-MS.- 3.2 PGE emissions of automobile catalysts — identifying their track in the environment. A challenge to analytical strategy and assessment.- 3.3 Voltammetric determination of ultratrace platinum and rhodium in biological and environmental samples.- 3.4 PACEPAC: A road dust as a certified reference material for the quality assurance in the analysis of Pt, Pd and Rh in environmental samples.- 3.5 Platinum speciation using on-line hyphenation of capillary electrophoresis to ICP-MS.- 3.6 Determination of palladium in environmental samples.- 3.7 Speciation of platinum in plant material. A combination of chromatography, elemental mass spectrometry and electrochemistry.- 3.8 Plasma source mass spectrometric techniques and highly efficient sample introduction systems as tools for the ultratrace determination of PGE.- 3.9 Reliability of and measurement uncertainty for the determination of Au, Pd, Pt and Rh by ICP-MS in environmentally relevant samples.- 4 Bioavailability and biomonitoring of PGE.- 4.1 Bioavailability of finely dispersed platinum as emitted from automotive catalytic converter: A model study.- 4.2 Internal platinum and palladium exposure of the general population with emphasis on the exposure from automobile exhaust and dental restorative alloys.- 4.3 Urinary biomonitoring of platinum in occupational medicine.- 5 Health risk potential of PGE.- 5.1 Toxicology of platinum, palladium, rhodium, and their compounds.- 5.2 Occupational platinum salt allergy. Diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and therapy.- 5.3 Evaluation of the health risk of platinum emissions from automotive emission control catalysts.- 6 Car exhaust catalysts: pollutant reduction and emission balance.- 6.1 Pollution reduction in motor car exhaust gases by regulation of the fuel mixture with the lambda-sensor.- 6.2 Screening life cycle inventory of PGEs and its influence on the overall emission balance of cars fitted with catalytic converters.