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Environmental Sciences | Climate Change Science: A Modern Synthesis - Volume 1 - The Physical Climate

Climate Change Science: A Modern Synthesis

Volume 1 - The Physical Climate

Farmer, G. Thomas, Cook, John

2013, XXVIII, 564 p. 194 illus., 133 illus. in color.

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  • Volume One of a two-volume treatment of climate change science designed for an introductory science course
  • Describes the discipline of Climate Change Science, and individual climate change scientists whose expertise spans Earth history, geology, geography, biology, oceanography, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering and more
  • Examines evidence of global warming that has entered mainstream discussions of climate change
  • Discusses the ideas and tactics of climate skeptics and deniers

Climate Change Science: A Modern Synthesis introduces the principles of climate change science, emphasizing the empirical evidence for climate change and a warming world. Divided into eleven sections, this comprehensive book opens with an introduction to basic scientific principles including the scientific method, the laws of thermodynamics, the gathering and interpretation of data, biographical notes on a few of the giants of science and their contributions, profiles of selected climate change scientists and their contributions, Newton’s laws of motion and more.

The remaining sections include an Overview of Climate Change Science; Earth’s Atmosphere; The World Ocean and Climate; Earth’s Cryosphere and Climate History; Land and Its Climates; Climate Models; Paleoclimatology; Future Climates and Mitigation; Skeptics and Deniers of Global Warming and Specific Declarations against Climate Science and Climate Scientists. The book offers extensive coverage of the major aspects of climate change and its effects and interactions with the atmosphere, the World Ocean, glaciers and land. Modeling the Climate receives its own chapter, and there are sections on past climates and a chapter outlining the ideas of climate change skeptics and deniers and the scientific evidence that either refutes or substantiates their claims.

Each chapter opens with a list of “Things to Know.” The book goes on to offer chapter-length discussion of the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and anthroposphere and their inter-relationships and much more. Designed as an introductory text for use at the undergraduate level, Climate Change Science assumes no science background on the part of the reader.

Content Level » Lower undergraduate

Keywords » Climate Change - Empiricism - Global Warming - Global Warming Denialism - Scientific Principles

Related subjects » Climate Change Impact - Earth Sciences & Geography - Environmental Sciences - Geography - Organic Chemistry

Table of contents 

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction to Global Warming
1.2 Greenhouse Effect
1.3 Climate Sensitivity
1.4 Average Global Temperature from 1880 to 2009
1.5 Carbon Dioxide
1.6 Global Warming, Climate, and Weather
1.6.1 Arctic Sea Ice Extent 1979-2005
1.6.2 Impacts of Global Warming
1.7 Timescales, Positive Feedbacks, and Tipping Points
1.8 Energy and Climate Policy
1.8.1 Energy Choices
1.9 Forcings and Feedbacks
1.9.1 Earth’s Albedo
1.9.2 Irradiance
1.10 Energy Budget
1.11 Affected Weather
1.12 Hockey Stick Controversy
Additional Reading
PART I – SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
2 – SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES
Abstract
Key Words

Things to Know
Introduction
2.1 Internet Searches
2.2 The Warming Earth: Heat and the Principles of Thermodynamics
2.2.1 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
2.2.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
2.2.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
2.2.4 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
2.3 Climate Scientists
2.3.1 Scientific Laws and Climate Scientists
2.4 Scientific Jargon
2.5 Communication between Scientists and the Public
2.6 The Concept of Time
2.7 From Hothouse to Icehouse
2.8 Earth’s Energy Imbalance
2.9 An Introduction to Science
2.9.1 Reasons to Study Science
2.9.2 The Philosophy of Science
2.9.3 Early History of Science
2.9.4 Aristotle (384-322 BC)
2.10 Early Scientists
2.10.1 Pliny the Elder (23 AD – 79 AD)
2.10.2 Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 90 – c. AD 168)
2.10.3 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543)
2.10.4 Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)
2.10.5 Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)
2.10.6 Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe
2.10.7 Isaac Newton
2.11 Empiricism
2.12 Inductive Logic
2.13 Multiple Working Hypotheses
2.14 Deductive Logic
2.15 Models and Simulations
2.16 The Nature of Science
2.17 The Science of Nature
2.18 Chaos Theory
2.19 Scientific Notation
Additional Reading
3 - THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND ITS USE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
The Scientific Method
3.1 A Linearized Approach to the Scientific Method
3.2 Data Collection – Experimentation, Measurement, Observation
3.3 Ideas, Persistence, Documentation, Testing, Reproducibility, Publication
3.4 Hypotheses
3.5 Theories
3.6 Newton’s Laws of Motion
3.7 The Peer-Review Process
3.8 Use of the Scientific Method
3.8.1 James Hutton and Uniformitarianism
3.8.2 Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species
3.8.3 James Watson and Francis Crick – the Structure of DNA
3.8.4 Harry Hess and Plate Tectonic Theory
3.8.5 Plate Tectonic Theory
3.8.6 Wallace Broecker and the First Use of the Term Global Warming
3.9 Use of the Scientific Method in Climate Change Science
3.9.1 Joseph Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect
3.9.2 John Tyndall and Thermal Radiation
3.9.3 Svante Arrhenius and Carbon Dioxide
3.9.4 T. C. Chamberlin and the Ice Ages
3.9.5 Guy Stewart Callendar and Rising Temperatures
3.9.6 Gilbert Plass and Doubling of Carbon Dioxide
3.9.7 Hans Suess and Carbon-14 in Carbon Dioxide
3.9.8 Roger Revelle and Ocean Chemistry
3.9.9 Charles David Keeling and CO2
3.9.10 Syukuro (“Suki”) Manabe and Climate Modeling
3.9.11 James Hansen and Temperature Analysis
3.9.12 William Ruddiman and Paleoclimate
3.9.13 Gavin Schmidt and GISS
3.9.14 Stefan Rahmstorf, Sea Level and Temperature Rise
Additional Reading
PART II – OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE
4 – EARTH’S ENERGY BUDGET
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
Introduction
4.1 Weather and Climate
4.2 Solar and Heat Energy
4.3 Earth’s Radiation Laws
4.4 Earth’s Energy Imbalance
Additional Reading
5 – CLIMATE CHANGE TRENDS
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
5. Climate Change Trends
5.1 Rising Temperatures
5.1.1 Temperature Scales
5.1.2 Temperatures Shown by Graphs
5.1.3 Rising Land and Sea Temperatures
5.1.4 Tropospheric Warming and Stratospheric Cooling
5.2 Sources of Uncertainty with Temperature Data
5.3 Climate Construction from Instrumental Data
5.4 Measurement of Temperature
5.5.1 Global Temperature from Meteorological Stations
5.5 The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) Study
5.6 Land Temperatures from Boreholes
5.7 Rising Sea Temperatures
5.7.1 Relative Distribution of Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs)
5.7.2 Ocean Heat Content
5.8 Melting Ice
5.8.1 Permafrost, Methane, and Clathrates
5.8.2 Methane Clathrates
5.9 Rising Sea Level
5.10 Migration of Plants and Animals
5.11 Species Extinctions
5.12 Human Health Effects of Rising Temperatures
5.13 Attribution
5.14 Greenhouse Gases
5.15 Human Fingerprints on Global Warming
5.16.1 Earth’s Cooling Upper Atmosphere
5.16.2 Rising Tropopause
5.16.3 Less Heat Escaping to Space
5.16.4 Nights Warming Faster than Days
5.16.5 Winter Warming Faster than Summer
5.16.6 More Fossil Fuel Carbon in Coral
5.16.7 Shrinking Upper Atmosphere
5.16.8 Less Oxygen in the Atmosphere
5.16.9 More Fossil Fuel Carbon in the Atmosphere
5.16.10 More Heat Returning to Earth
5.16.11 Pattern of Ocean Warming
5.16 Components of the Climate Change Process
5.17 Other Effects of Global Warming
5.18 Forcings and Feedbacks in the Climate System
5.18.1 Forcings
5.18.2 Positive and Negative Forcing and their Effects
5.18.3 Feedbacks
5.19 Climate Sensitivity
Additional Reading
6 – EARTH’S SURFACE TEMPERATURE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
6. Introduction
6.1 Tipping Points
6.2 Temperature Records
6.3 Data Reduction
6.4 Data Analysis
6.5 Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT)
6.6 Data Reporting
6.7 Average Land Temperatures
6.8 History of the Development of the Global Average Temperature
6.9 Current Analysis Method
6.10 Temperature Anomalies
6.11 History of Temperature Recordings
6.12 Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs)
6.13 Projections of Future Temperatures
6.14 The IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), 2007
Additional Reading
7 – CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE AS EARTH SCIENCE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
7.1 Climate Science as Earth Science
7.2 The Faint Young Sun Paradox
7.3 The Gaia Hypothesis
7.4 Introduction to Life Science
7.5 Introduction to the Atmosphere
7.6 Open System Science
7.7 Uniformitarianism and Climate Change Science
7.8 Recent Climate Data and Future Projections
7.9 Components of the Climate Change System
7.10 Good Science, Bad Science, and Non-Science
7.11 Examples of Good Science
7.12 Examples of Bad Science 
7.13 Examples of Non-Science
7.14 Ethics in Science
7.15 The Concept of Scale in Earth and Climate Change Science
7.16 Map Scales
7.17 Fractals
7.18 Graph Scales
7.19 Time Scales
7.20 Earth Scales
7.21 Planetary Scales
7.22 Cosmic Scales
Additional Reading
PART III – EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
8 – INTRODUCTION TO EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
8.1 The Atmosphere
8.2 Composition of the Atmosphere
8.2.1 Carbon Dioxide
8.2.2 Methane (CH4)
8.2.3 Nitrous Oxide (N20)
8.2.4 Ozone (O3)
8.2.5 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
8.2.6 Other Trace Gases
8.2.7 Aerosols
8.3 Lapse Rate
8.4 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
8.5 Atmospheric Circulation
Additional Reading

9 – CARBON DIOXIDE, OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES, AND THE CARBON CYCLE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
9.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
9.1.1 The Keeling Curve
9.2 The Carbon Cycle
9.3 Carbon Dioxide and the Carbon Cycle
9.4 Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide
9.4.1 Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
9.4.2 Oxidation – Reduction of Carbon
9.4.3 Sinks of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
9.4.4 Carbon Cycle Disequilibrium
9.4.5 Restoring Carbon Cycle Equilibrium
9.5 Methane (CH4)
9.5.1 Sources and Sinks of Atmospheric Methane
9.6 Nitrous Oxide
9.6.1 Sources and Sinks of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide
9.6.2 Increases in Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide Concentration
9.7 Halocarbons
9.7.1 Sources and Sinks of Halocarbons
9.7.2 Increases in Atmospheric Halocarbons Concentration
9.8 Ozone
9.9 Other Trace Gases
9.10 Atmospheric Residence Time of Greenhouse Gases
Additional Reading
10 - EARTH’S ALBEDO, RADIATIVE FORCING AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
10.1 Earth’s Albedo
10.1.1 Solid Earth Albedo
10.1.2 Ocean Albedo
10.1.3 Glacial Ice Albedo
10.1.4 Water Vapor
10.1.5 Cloud Albedo
10.1.6 Deforestation and Albedo
10.2 Radiative Forcing
10.2.1 Factors Affecting Greenhouse Radiative Forcing
10.3 Global Warming Potentials (GWPs)
10.4 Calculation of Greenhouse Gas Radiative Forcing
10.5 Radiative Forcing of Ozone
10.5.1 Stratospheric Ozone
10.5.2 Tropospheric Ozone
10.6 Aerosols
10.6.1 Sources and Sinks of Aerosols
10.6.2 Radiative Forcing by Aerosols
10.7 Direct Radiative Forcing
10.8 Indirect Radiative Forcing
10.9 Total Anthropogenic Radiative Forcing: Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols
10.10 Observed Climate Variations
10.11 Clouds and their Impacts on Climate Change
10.11.1 High-Level Clouds
10.11.2 Mid-Level Clouds
10.11.3 Low-Level Clouds
10.12 Orographic Rainfall
Additional Reading
11 – ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND CLIMATE
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
11.1 Atmospheric Circulation
11.2 Insolation
11.3 Air Flow Patterns
11.4 Climate Change Effects on Atmospheric Circulations
11.5 Extreme Weather Events
11.5.1 Washington, D.C. Metro
11.5.2 Binghamton, N.Y. 
11.5.3 Allentown, PA. 
11.5.4 Harrisburg, PA 
11.5.5 Dayton, Ohio 
11.5.6 Colorado Springs, Colo. 
11.5.7 Tucson, Arizona. 
11.6 Record Heat 
11.6.1 Houston, Texas 
11.6.2 Dallas, Texas 
11.6.3 Phoenix, Arizona 
11.6.4 Corpus Christi, Texas. 
11.7 Record Cold 
11.7.1 International Falls, Minn. 
11.8 Record River Flooding 
11.9 Tropical Storm Lee's Tornadoes 
11.10 Other Meteorological Events
Additional Reading
PART IV - THE WORLD OCEAN AND CLIMATE
12 – THE WORLD OCEAN
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
12.1 The World Ocean
12.2 Ocean Salinity
12.3 Ocean Topography
12.4 The World Ocean and Carbon Dioxide
12.5 Ocean Acidification
12.6 Oceanic Circulation
12.6.1 Thermohaline Circulation
Additional Reading
13 – OCEAN HEAT CONTENT AND RISING SEA LEVEL
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
13.1 Global Warming and Sea Level Rise
13.2 Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Sea Ice
13.3 Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)
13.4 Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
13.5 Future Potential Sea Level Rise
13.6 Ocean Heat Content
13.7 El Niño – La Niña (or ENSO)
Additional Reading
PART V – EARTH’S CRYOSPHERE AND RECENT CLIMATE HISTORY
14 – GLACIERS AND THE LATEST ICE AGEAbstractKeywords
Things to Know
14. Introduction
14.1 Greenland Ice Sheet
14.2 Antarctica
14.3 Mountain Glaciers
14.4 Ice Cores
14.5 Stable Isotope Analysis
14.6 Ice Cores and Proxies
14.6.1 Dating Ice Cores
14.6.2 Mountain Glacier Ice Cores
14.7 The Ice Age
14.7.1 History
14.7.2 Climate Forcing by Orbital Variations
14.7.3 Eccentricity
14.7.4 Obliquity
14.7.5 Precession
14.8 Milankovitch Cycles and Ice Ages
14.9 Solar Variations
14.10 Questions not Explained by Milankovitch Cycles
Additional Reading
15 – PERMAFROST AND METHANE 
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
15. Introduction
15.1 Distribution
15.2 Origin of Permafrost
15.3 Methane Chemistry
15.4 Future Projections for Permafrost and Methane
15.5 Methane Gun Hypothesis
Additional Reading
PART VI - LAND AND ITS CLIMATES

16 CONTINENTS AND MOUNTAIN RANGES
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
16. Introduction
16.1 Continental Drift
16.2 Harry Hess and Sea-Floor Spreading
16.3 Plate Tectonics
16.3.1 Types of Plate Boundaries
16.4 Continental Mountain Ranges
16.5 Islands
Additional Reading
17 – CLIMATE CLASSIFICATIONS
Abstract
Key Words
Things to Know
 An Introduction to Climate Classification
17.1 Air Masses
17.2 Modern Climate Classification
17.2.1 The Bergeron Climate Classification
17.3 The Köppen-Geiger Classification
17.3.1 Group A Climates
17.3.2 Group B Climates
17.3.3 Group C Climates
17.3.4 Group D Climates
17.3.5 Group E Climates
17.4 The Thornthwaite Climate Classification
Additional Reading
PART VII - CLIMATE MODELS
18 – TYPES OF MODELS
Abstract
Key Words
Things to Know
 Introduction
18.1 Climate Models
18.1.1 Simplifying the Climate System
18.1.2 Boundary Conditions
18.1.3 Climate Modeling Centers
18.2 Types of Climate Models
18.2.1 Box Models
18.2.2 Energy Balance Models
18.2.3 Radiative-Convective Models
18.2.4 Statistical-Dynamical Models
18.2.5 General Circulation Models
18.3 Confidence and Validation
Additional Reading
PART VIII – CLIMATES OF THE PAST (PALEOCLIMATOLOGY)


19 – ANCIENT CLIMATES AND PROXIES
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
19.1 Historical Records
19.2 Ice Cores
19.3 Stable Isotope Analysis
19.4 Ice Cores and Proxies
19.5 Dating Ice Cores
19.6 Dendroclimatology
19.7 Ocean Sediments
19.8 Paleoclimate Reconstruction from Biogenic Material
19.9 Paleoclimate Reconstruction from Terrigenous Material
19.10 Terrestrial Sediments
19.11 Periglacial Features
19.12 Glacial Fluctuations
19.13 Lake-Level Fluctuations
19.13.1 Russia’s Lake El’gygytgyn (Lake E)
19.14 Pollen Analysis
19.15 Sedimentary Rocks
Additional Reading
20 – CLIMATES OF THE RECENT PAST
Abstract
Key Words
Things to Know
Introduction
20.1 Holocene Climates
20.2 Younger Dryas Cooling
20.3 Mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum
20.4 Late Holocene Neoglaciation
20.5 Little Ice Age
20.6 Medieval Warm Period
20.7 Holocene Climate Forcing Mechanisms
20.8 Coupled Internally-Externally Driven Climate Change
20.9 Contemporary Climate Change
Additional Reading
21 - PLEISTOCENE GLACIATIONS
Abstract
Keywords
Things to Know
21. Pleistocene Glaciations
21.1 Glacials and Interglacials
21.2 Causes of Glacial Advances and Retreats
21.3 Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
21.4 Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM)
21.5 The Cooling Begins
21.6 Formation of the Isthmus of Panama and the Freezing of the Arctic
21.7 Other Influences and Possible Causes of Ice Ages
21.8 Maximum Extent and Characteristics of Continental Glaciers
21.8.1 The North American Ice Line
21.8.2 Europe and Asia’s Continental Glaciation
21.8.3 Southern Hemisphere Glaciation
Additional Reading
PART IX - FUTURE CLIMATES AND MITIGATION
22 - PROJECTIONS OF FUTURE CLIMATES
Abstract
Key Words
Things to Know
Introduction
22.1 Hotter - Global Warming
22.2 Flatter – The Digital Age
22.3 More Crowded – Population Increase
22.3.1 Population and Demographics
22.4 IPCC Projections of Future Climate Change
22.5 Politics and Global Warming
22.5.1 Politicians and Their Views
22.5.2 Ronald Reagan
22.5.3 Richard Nixon
22.5.4 Barak Obama
Additional Reading
PART X – SKEPTICS AND DENIERS OF GLOBAL WARMING
23 - UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE DENIAL
Abstract  
Keywords
Things to Know
Introduction
23.1 Basis for the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change
23.2 Characteristics of Denial
23.2.1 Fake Experts
23.2.2 Cherry Picking
23.2.3 Logical Fallacies
23.2.4 Impossible Expectations
23.2.5 Conspiracy Theories
23.2.6 Denial Characteristics at a Psychological Level
23.3 Drivers of Climate Denial
23.3.1 Conservative Ideology
23.3.2 Conservative Think Tanks
23.3.3 Mainstream Media’s Balance-as-Bias
23.3.4 Government
23.3.5 Corporate Vested Interests
23.3.6 Internet
23.4 Responding to Climate Denial
23.4.1 Familiarity Backfire Effect
23.4.2 Overkill Backfire Effect
23.4.3 Worldview Backfire Effect
23.4.4 Alternative Explanation
23.4.5 Summary
Additional Reading
PART XI - SPECIFIC DECLARATIONS AGAINST CLIMATE SCIENCE AND CLIMATE SCIENTISTS
24 - REBUTTALS TO CLIMATE MYTHS
Abstract  
Keywords
Things to Know
 Introduction
24.1 Fake Experts
24.1.1 A Petition of Tens of Thousands of Non-Experts
24.1.2 A Contrarian Take on Climate Sensitivity
24.2 Cherry Picking
24.2.1 Warming at Over Two Hiroshima Bombs per Second
24.2.2 Hockey Stick versus Hockey Team
24.2.3 Sun and Climate Moving in Opposite Directions
24.2.4 Human Emissions Upsetting the Natural Balance
22.3 Logical Fallacies
24.3.1 What does past climate change tell us?
24.3.2 CO2 Lag – The Chicken and Egg Dilemma
24.3.3 What Were Scientists Predicting in the 1970s?
24.3.4 How a Trace Gas has such a Significant Effect
24.4 Impossible Expectations
24.4.1 What Lessons do we learn from Past Model Predictions?
24.4.2 Science is never settled
24.4.3 Uncertainty is Not Our Friend
24.5 Conspiracy Theories
24.5.1 Nine Climategate Investigations Across Two Countries
24.5.2 Confusing ‘Mike’s Trick’ with ‘Hide the Decline’
24.5.3 Tracking down Trenberth’s ‘Missing Heat’
Additional Reading
ABBREVIATIONS
GLOSSARY
APPENDICES
INDEX

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