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This book includes the carefully edited contributions to the United Engineering Foundation Conference: The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Buses and Trains held in Monterey, California from December 2-6, 2002. This conference brought together 90 leading engineering researchers discussing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles. The book topics include a comparison of computational fluid dynamics calculations using both steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, large-eddy simulation, and hybrid turbulence models and experimental data obtained from wind tunnel experiments. Advanced experimental techniques including three-dimensional particle image velocimetry are presented as well, along with their use in evaluating drag reduction devices.
Aerodynamics and Other Efficiencies in Transporting Goods.- Commercial Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction: Historical Perspective as a Guide.- The Status of Detached-Eddy Simulation for Bluff Bodies.- Exploring the Flow Around a Simplified Bus with Large Eddy Simulation and Topological Tools.- Unsteady Flow Around Cylinders with Cavities.- Complex CFD for Everyday Use — Practical Applications for Vehicle Analysis.- Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Around the Ahmed Body.- Detached-Eddy Simulation of the Ground Transportation System.- Time Dependent vs. Steady State Calculations of External Aerodynamics.- Aerodynamics of Ground Vehicles — Toward Reliable and Affordable CFD.- Improved Tractor-Trailer Integration and Aerodynamics Through the Use of CFD.- Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Via Lattice Boltzmann Based Approach: Fundamental Physics and Practical Applications.- Aspects of CFD Application to Vehicle Aerodynamic Design.- PIV Study of the Near Wake of a Pickup Truck.- Applications of DDPIV to Studies Associated with Road Vehicles.- Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) and Its Automotive Applications.- Quantitative Flow Visualization for Large Scale Wind Tunnels.- An Experimental Study of the Generic Conventional Model (GCM) in the NASA Ames 7-by-10-Foot Wind Tunnel.- The Measurement of Wake and Gap Flows of the Generic Conventional Truck Model (GCM) Using Three-Component PIV.- On the Aerodynamics of Tractor-Trailers.- RANS Simulations of a Simplified Tractor/Trailer Geometry.- Computational Simulation of a Heavy Vehicle Trailer Wake.- Drag Reduction of Two-Dimensional Bodies by Addition of Boat Tails.- Drag Reduction of a Tractor-Trailer Using Planar Boat Tail Plates.- RANS Simulations of Passive and Active Drag Reduction Devices for a Road Vehicle.- Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction, Safety Enhancement, and Performance Improvement.- Base Flaps and Oscillatory Perturbations to Decrease Base Drag.- Use of Computational Aerodynamics for Commercial Vehicle Development at DaimlerChrysler.- Numerical Simulation of the Flow About a Train Model.- Adaptation of Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models to Unsteady Separated Flow Behind Vehicles.- Simulation of Vehicle Aerodynamics Using a Vortex Element Method.- Energetic and CFD Modeling Considerations of Thermal Management.- Measurement of Underhood Temperatures with Various Ventilations.- Measurement and Analysis of Underhood Ventilation Air Flow and Temperatures for an Off-Road Machine.- Flow Field and Thermal Management Analysis of an Armored Vehicle Engine Compartment.- Experiments and CFD in Train Aerodynamics: A Young and Turbulent Association Full of Potential.- Recent Studies of Train Slipstreams.- Aerodynamic Effects in Railway Tunnels as Speed is Increased.- Flow-Induced Vibration of High-Speed Trains in Tunnels.- How to Reduce the Cross Wind Sensitivity of Trains.- CFD Study of Side Wind Effects on a High Speed Train.- Commercial CFD Code Validation for Heavy-Vehicle External Aerodynamics Simulation.- Computational Parametric Study on External Aerodynamics of Heavy Trucks.- Applicability of the Vortex Methods for Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles.- Development of a Wind Tunnel Model Mounting Configuration for Heavy Duty Trucks..- A Ground-Based Research Vehicle for Base Drag Studies at Subsonic Speeds.- Splash and Spray Measurement and Control: Recent Progress in Quebec.- Wind-Tunnel Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Heat Exchanger.- Automated Driving of Trucks and Buses: Opportunities for Increasing Productivity and Safety While Reducing Fuel Use and Emissions.- Author Index.