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Engineering - Energy Technology | Renewable Energies in Germany’s Electricity Market - A Biography of the Innovation Process

Renewable Energies in Germany’s Electricity Market

A Biography of the Innovation Process

Bruns, E., Ohlhorst, D., Wenzel, B., Köppel, J.

2011, XX, 408 p.

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  • Relevant to the current understanding and deployment of renewable energies in Europe and beyond;
  • Offers an in-depth overview of each of the renewable energy sources;
  • Provides invaluable information and tips on the solutions and drivers for innovation when it comes to renewable energy policy making.
This cross-sectional, interdisciplinary study traces the “history of innovation” of renewable energies in Germany. It features five renewable energy sectors of electricity generation: biomass, photovoltaic, wind energy, geothermal energy and hydropower. The study analyzes the development of the respective technologies as well as their contribution to electricity generation. It focuses on driving forces and constraints for renewable energies in the period between 1990 and today. Through tracking the innovations and mapping the actors, the book answers questions such as: Which technological developments, pivotal actors and actor constellations, which political strategies, goals and instruments play a major role in the innovation process? What legal, administrative, economic and social conditions have been and still are most significant? How do the conflicting aims of environmental protection objectives, including the goals to battle climate change, fit into the larger picture of energy production? Which are the variables that most affect the expansion of renewable energy usage, and in what way?

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » climate change mitigation - energy policy - governance - innovation - renewable energy

Related subjects » Energy Technology - Environmental Sciences - Global Change - Climate Change - Nature Conservation & Biodiversity - Political Science

Table of contents 

Acknowledgements.- List of Abbreviations.- List of Figures.- List of Tables.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Introduction to the Methodology.- 2.1 Research Questions and Aim of Research.- 2.2 Procedure.- 2.3 Methodology Used in the Constellation Analysis.- 2.4 Governing Political and Social Processes.- 2.5 References.- 3. Cross-Sectoral Interventions, Events and Processes.- 3.1 Crises As Triggers for Social Rethinking Processes.- 3.1.1 Environmental and Climate Crises.- 3.1.2 Oil Price Crises.- 3.1.3 Nuclear Energy Crisis.- 3.1.4 Energy Supply Crises and Electricity Gap Debate.- 3.1.5 Food Crisis.- 3.2 International Climate Protection Research and Politics.- 3.2.1 International Climate Protection Process.- 3.2.2 Establishment of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) .- 3.3 Incentives for Energy Policy at EU Level.- 3.3.1 Liberalization of the Energy Markets.- 3.3.2 Renewables and Climate Protection Policy at EU Level.- 3.3.3 European Emissions Allowance Trading.- 3.4 Emergence of National Problem Awareness and Process of Institutionalization.- 3.4.1 Institutionalization of Environmental Protection.- 3.4.2 Climate Protection in Politics and Administration.- 3.4.3 Institutionalization of Renewable Energy Policy.- 3.4.4 Establishment of Associations.- 3.5 Energy and Climate Policy Strategies and Objectives at National Level.- 3.5.1 Guidelines on Energy Policy Issued by The Federal Government In 1991.- 3.5.2 Change of Government to Red-Green In 1998.- 3.5.3 National Climate Protection Programs.- 3.5.4 Nuclear Phaseout Resolution of 2001.- 3.5.5 Sustainability Strategy 2002.- 3.6 Government Aid For Renewable Energy.- 3.6.1 Market Incentive Program.- 3.6.2 Federal Research Funding.- 3.6.3 Funding On State Level.- 3.7 Streg and EEG As Key Policy Measures.- 3.7.1 The Electricity Feed-In Act.- 3.7.2 The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG).- 3.7.3 Integrated Energy and Climate Program of the Federal Government.- 3.8 Environmental and Planning Law For Renewable Energy Projects.- 3.8.1 Amendment of Regional Planning Law.- 3.8.2 Zoning Law / Planning Permission Law.- 3.8.3 Legal Basis For Grid Connection and Grid Expansion.- 3.9 Overall Parameters of the Electricity Sector.- 3.9.1 Integration Of The Electricity Industry In Europe – Actors And Influencing Factors.- 3.9.2 Structure Of The German Electricity Supply Sector.- 3.9.3 Liberalization of the Energy Market – The German Energy Industry Act.- 3.9.4 Current Courses Set In The Energy Sector.- 3.10 References.- 4. Innovation Framework For Generating Biogas and Electricity From Biogas.- 4.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 4.2 Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process.- 4.2.1 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase - 1970 To 1990.- 4.2.2 Phase 2: First Phase of Emergence Between 1990 and 1999.- 4.2.3 Phase 3: Intensified Emergence Between 2000 and Mid-2004.- 4.2.4 Phase 4: Take-off From Mid-2004 to the End of 2006.- 4.2.5 Phase 5: Setback In Development 2007/2008.- 4.2.6 Consolidation From Mid-2008 Onwards and Future Prospects.- 4.3 References.- 5. Innovation Framework for Generating Electricity From Solar Power.- 5.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 5.2 Phase-Specific Analysis of the Innovation Process.- 5.2.1 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase, 1970 To 1985.- 5.2.2 Phase 2: Stagnation of Industry Engagement, R & D, 1986 to 1991.- 5.2.3 Phase 3: Large-Scale Testing From 1991 to 1994.- 5.2.4 Phase 4: Uncertainty and Slowdown, 1994 to 1998.- 5.2.5 Phase 5: Breakthrough, 1999 to 2003.- 5.2.6 Phase 6: Development Boom From 2004.- 5.3 References.- 6. Innovation Framework For Generating Electricity From Geothermal Power.- 6.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 6.2 Phase-Specific Analysis of the Innovation Process.- 6.2.1 Phase 1: 1985 To 2003, Research & Development, Preliminary Projects To Generate Electricity.- 6.2.2 Phase 2: Formation of Prospective Structures From 2004.- 6.2.3 Outlook.- 6.3 References.- 7. Innovation Framework For Generating Electricity From Wind Power.- 7.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 7.2 Phase-Based Analysis of the Innovation Process.- 7.2.1 Phase 1: Pioneering Phase – Mid-1970s Until 1986.- 7.2.2 Phase 2: Inception – Changing Context of Energy Policy Between 1986 and 1990.- 7.2.3 Phase 3: Breakthrough 1991 to 1995.- 7.2.4 Phase 4: Development Dip in the Mid-1990s.- 7.2.5 Phase 5: Wind Power Boom and Reorganization 1997/98 To 2002.- 7.2.6 Phase 6: Consolidation and Divergence of the Pathway From 2002.- 7.3 References.- 8. Innovation Framework For Generating Electricity From Hydropower.- 8.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 8.2 Hydropower in the Pioneering Phase (Before 1930).- 8.3 Phase-Based Analysis of the Course of Innovation.- 8.3.1 Phase 1: Hydropower Maturation Phase (1930 - 1990).- 8.3.2 Phase 2: Revitalization of Small Hydropower, 1990 - 1999.- 8.3.3 Phase 3: Modernization Under Environmental Constraints, 2000 to the Present.- 8.3.4 Prospects.- 8.4 References.- 9. Cross-Sectional Comparison.- 9.1 Key Driving Forces in the Innovation Biographies.- 9.1.1 Civic Activities, Creative Environment and Pioneers.- 9.1.2 Advocacy Coalitions.- 9.1.3 Political Window.- 9.1.4 Political Strategies and Guiding Principles.- 9.1.5 Institutionalization and Market Incentives.- 9.1.6 Multi-Level Policy as the Motor.- 9.1.7 Technology-bound Driving Forces.- 9.2 Inhibitory Influences in the Innovation Biographies.- 9.2.1 Investment Costs and Limited Resources.- 9.2.2 Inhibitory Advocacy Coalitions.- 9.2.3 Insufficient and Incompatible Infrastructure.- 9.2.4 Loss of Acceptance.- 9.3 Comparison of Innovation Processes: Characteristic Phases and Different Processes.- 9.3.1 Pioneering Phase Or Early Phase Including Pilot Applications.- 9.3.2 Inception.- 9.3.3 Breakthrough.- 9.3.4 Expansion and Boom Phases.- 9.3.5 Phases of Instability and Crisis.- 9.3.6 Phases of Stabilization and Consolidation.- 10. Insights Into the Drivers of Innovation.- 10.1 Phase-Specific Adjustment of Policies.- 10.1.1 Identifying and Strengthening Innovation Processes in the Early Phase.- 10.1.2 On the Path to a Breakthrough – Stimulating the Process in Its Inception Phase.- 10.1.3 In the Expansion Phase: Easing Integration Into the System and Avoiding Acceptance Problems.- 10.1.4 Sustaining Innovation Processes by Corrective Controls.- 10.1.5 Driving Innovation During Unstable Phases.- 10.2 Recognizing and Limiting Unintended Outcomes in a Timely Manner.- 10.3 Integrating Levels of Action and Actors.- 10.3.1 Coordination and Integration of Policy Levels.- 10.3.2 Integrating the Goals of Government Portfolios.- 10.3.3 Integrating Sub-Constellations.- 10.3.4 Planning Policies.- 10.4 Synchronization-based Policy.- 10.4.1 Temporal Synchronization.- 10.4.2 Accumulation of Policy Action.- 10.4.3 Synchronizing Heterogeneous Innovation Processes.- 10.5 Coherent Policies in Complex Constellations.- 10.6 Future Challenges Facing Governance.- Authors’ Biographies.- Index of Legal Sources.

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