My academic career began in January 1992 when I joined the University of Victoria as a faculty member after obtaining Masters and Ph.D. degree from Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A. in 1986 and 1989, respectively and spending the next couple of years at the University of Waterloo, Canada as a postdoctoral fellow and research assistant professor. In 1997 I moved back to the University of Waterloo as a faculty member until now.
My research group and I myself are currently focused on promoting/developing green (or greener) energy through energy diversification and energy localization for sustainable development and energy security. Green energy, despite the variety of interpretations possible, is taken as the form and utilization of energy with no, minimal, or reduced negative environmental and societal impact, or simply as environmentally friendly energy use. Therefore, the topical areas of my research activities and interests include, but are not limited to
1. Energy Systems and Energy Policy/Planning:
a. Energy and Exergy Analysis and Thermodynamic Optimization
b. Energy Systems Evolution, Modelling and Optimization
c. Design of Future Energy Systems
d. Life Cycle Analysis
• Li, X., Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy
security. Energy Policy, Vol. 33, pp. 2237-2243, 2005.
• Dincer, I., S. Dost and X. Li, Energy reality and future projections for Canada. Energy Sources -
Journal of Extraction, Conversion, and the Environment, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 233-243, 1997.
• Hussain, M.M., J. Baschuk, X. Li and I. Dincer, Thermodynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell
power system. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 44, pp. 903-911, 2005.
• Zamel, N. and X. Li, Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and internal
combustion engine for Canada. Journal of Power Sources, accepted, March 2005.
2. Renewable Energy:
a. Wind Energy: Wind energy potential assessment, and theoretical determination of the probability
distribution of wind speed
• Li, M. and X. Li, Investigation of wind characteristics and assessment of wind energy potential for
Waterloo Region, Canada. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 46, pp. 3014-3033, 2005.
• Li, M. and X. Li, MEP-type distribution function: a better alternative to Weibull function for wind
speed distribution. Renewable Energy, Vol. 30, pp. 1221-1240, 2005.
• Li, M. and X. Li, On the probabilistic distribution of wind speeds: theoretical development and
comparison with data. International Journal of Exergy, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 237-255, 2004.
3. Energy Conversion Technologies:
a. Fuel Cells:
I. PEM Fuel Cells: modeling, experiment, design of flow fields and bipolar plates, scaling law
for cell and stack design, CO poisoning and mitigation, transport through membrane
II. Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: modeling of transport phenomena and cell performance
III. SOFCs: energy and exergy analysis, transport phenomena modeling and cell performance
• Karimi, G., J.J. Baschuk and X. Li, Performance Analysis and Optimization of PEM Fuel Cell
Stacks Using Flow Network Approach. Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 147, pp. 162-177, 2005.
• Karimi, G. and X. Li, Electroosmotic flow through polymer electrolyte membranes in PEM fuel
cells. Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 140, pp. 1-11, 2005.
• Sabir, I. and X. Li, Review of bipolar plates in PEM fuel cells: flow field designs. International
Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 30, pp. 359-371, 2005
• Hum, B. and X. Li, Two-dimensional analysis of PEM fuel cells. Journal of Applied
Electrochemistry, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 205-215, 2004.
• Baschuk, J.J. and X. Li, Mathematical model of a PEM fuel cell incorporating CO poisoning and
O2 (Air) Bleeding. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 245-276,
• Baschuk, J.J. and X. Li, Modeling CO poisoning and O2 bleeding in a PEM fuel cell anode.
International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 27, pp. 1095-1116, 2003.
• Li, X., Fuel cells - the environmentally friendly energy converter and power generator.
International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 17, Nos. 1/2, pp. 68-91, 2002.
• Rowe, A. and X. Li, Mathematical modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Journal of
Power Sources, Vol. 102, pp. 82-96, 2001.
• Baschuk, J.J. and X. Li, Modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with variable
degrees of water flooding. Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 86, No. 1-2, pp.181-196, 2000.
• Marr, C.L. and X. Li, Composition and performance modelling of catalyst layer in a proton
exchange membrane fuel cell. Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 77, pp. 17-27, 1999.
b. Low Emission Combustion Technology: Liquid fuel atomization and spray combustion
I. Liquid Fuel Atomization and Spray Formation
II. Probability Distribution of Spray Droplet Sizes and Velocities
III. Experimental Characterization of Spray Formation Processes and Spray Droplet Sizes and
IV. Spray and Ambient Air Stream Interaction
V. Droplet Vaporization and Ignition
• Park, J., K.Y. Huh, X. Li and M. Renksizbulut, Experimental investigation on cellular breakup of
a planar liquid sheet from an air-blast nozzle. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 625-632,
• Li, X. and M. Li*, Droplet size distribution in sprays based on maximization of entropy generation.
Entropy, Vol. 5, pp. 417-431, 2003.
• Kim, W. T.**, S. K. Mitra*, X. Li, L.A. Prociw and T.C.J. Hu, A predictive model for the initial
droplet size and velocity distributions in sprays and comparison with experiments. Particle &
Particle Systems Characterization, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 135-149, 2003.
• Chen, X.-Q.**, M. Renksizbulut and X. Li, Interaction of a particle-laden gaseous jet with a
confined annular turbulent flow. Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp.
• Li, X. and J. Shen*, Experiments on annular liquid jet breakup. Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 11,
No. 5, pp. 557-573, 2001.
• Shen, J.* and X. Li, Absolute and convective instability of annular viscous liquid jets in gas
streams. Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 491-504, 2001.
• Mitra, S.K.*, X. Li and M. Renksizbulut, On the breakup of viscous liquid sheets by dual mode
linear analysis. AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 728-735, 2001.
• Chen, X.Q.**, J.A. Friedman, X. Li and M. Renksizbulut, An improved method to determine
particle dispersion width for efficient modeling of turbulent two-phase flows. Particle & Particle
Systems Characterization, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 180-188, 2000.
• Cao, J.** and X. Li, Stability of plane liquid sheets in compressible gas streams. AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 623-627, 2000.
• Jazayeri, S.A.* and X. Li, Nonlinear instability of plane liquid sheets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics,
Vol. 406, pp. 281-308, 2000.
• Li, X. and M. Renksizbulut, Further development and application of a tomographical data
processing method for laser diffraction measurements in sprays. Particle and Particle Systems
Characterization, Vol. 16, pp. 212-219, 1999.
• Chen, X.-Q.**, M. Renksizbulut and X. Li, A stochastic-probabilistic model for simulating particle
dispersion in general coordinates. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals, Vol. 36, No. 1,
pp. 57-82, 1999.
• Li, X., Droplet autoignition in a reactive oxidant/fuel-vapor/inert environment. AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 89-96, 1997.
• Shen, J.* and X. Li, Instability of an annular viscous liquid jet. Acta Mechanica, Vol. 114, pp. 167-
• Li, X., Mechanism of atomization of a liquid jet. Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 5, pp. 89-105,
• Li, X., Spatial instability of plane liquid sheets. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 48, pp. 2973-
• Li, X. and R.S. Tankin, On the prediction of droplet size and velocity distributions in sprays
through maximum entropy principle. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization, Vol. 9, pp.
• Renksizbulut, M., M. Bussmann and X. Li, A droplet vaporization model for spray calculations.
Particle and Particle Systems Characterization, Vol. 9, pp. 59-65, 1992.
• Li, X. and M. Renksizbulut, Droplet ignition with variable properties and distinct binary diffusion
coefficients. AIAA Journal, Vol. 29, pp. 1131-1135, 1991.
• Li, X. and R.S. Tankin, On the temporal instability of a two-dimensional viscous liquid sheet.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 226, pp. 425-443, 1991.
• Renksizbulut, M., R. Nafziger and X. Li, A mass transfer correlation for droplet evaporation in
high-temperature flows. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 46, pp. 2351-2358, 1991.
• Li, X. and R.S. Tankin, Spray behavior in nonswirling and swirling annular air flows. Atomization
and Sprays, Vol. 1, pp. 319-336, 1991.
• Li, X. and R.S. Tankin, Spray behavior in annular air streams. Combustion Science and
Technology, Vol. 64, pp. 141-165, 1989.
4. Energy Conservation and Management:
a. Energy Storage Techniques: Thermal energy storage
b. Green Houses/Buildings: Double glass window insulation and heat transfer loss subject to
transient wall temperature variations
c. Energy Efficiency Improvement for Industrial Processes: Cooling of electric transformers, cooling
of structural steel products in steel mills (rolling and in cooling beds)
• Zhang, J. and X. Li, Oil cooling for disk-type transformer windings – Part 1: Theory and model
development. Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, June 2004.
• Zhang, J. and X. Li, Oil cooling for disk-type transformer windings – Part 2: Parametric Studies of
design parameters. Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, June 2004.
• Zhang, J. and X. Li, Natural cooling oil flow in disk-type transformer windings with zigzag flow
passages. International Journal of Transport Phenomena, Vol. 7, pp. 199-218, 2005.
• Zhang, J. and Li, X., Coolant flow distribution and pressure loss in ONAN transformer windings
— Part 1: theory and model development. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 19, No. 1,
pp. 186-193, 2004.
• Zhang, J. and Li, X., Coolant flow distribution and pressure loss in ONAN transformer windings
— Part 2: Optimization of Design Parameters. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 19, No.
1, pp. 194-199, 2004.
• Dincer, I., S. Dost and X. Li, Performance analyses of sensible heat storage systems for thermal
applications. International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 1157-1171, 1997.
• Dincer, I., S. Dost and X. Li, Thermal energy storage applications from an energy saving
perspective. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 9, Nos 4-6, pp. 351-364, 1997.
• Li, X., Natural convection in vertical slots with wall temperature oscillation. Experiments in
Fluids, Vol. 16, pp. 308-315, 1994.