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This book is directed primarily toward two types of readers. First, it is intended for use as a textbook for students in a liberal education course in science for non-science and non-engineering majors in college or univer sity. The technical level of presentation assumes no background in chemis try or physics on the part of the reader, and no science prerequisites or prior preparation are of concern. At the same time, elementary equations of chemistry and physics are included, particularly in relation to interconver sion of energy resources and utilization, for the benefit of the student with a more than passing interest in science who can learn much about these aspects of chemistry from equations presented in the book. Second, and considered to be of major concern and importance, it is intended for use as a reference book for teachers of science in the high schools and junior high schools. Because of the importance of energy in the daily life of the average citizen, a need is usually felt by the teacher at those levels to discuss various aspects of energy in daily life. However, often a source containing valid information is not available to the teacher. In the absence of a valid text, the teacher often resorts to information found in the press-information that is rarely accurate. The information presented in this book is soundly based in science, and in most cases the data presented are up-to-date as of the date of this writing.
Content Level »Lower undergraduate
Keywords »biomass - coal - electricity - energy storage - fuel - kerosene - natural gas - oil shale - petroleum - production - solar energy
1 Energy Concepts, Forms, Laws.- Basic Energy Concepts.- Energy Forms.- Fossil Fuels as Sources of Energy.- Machines for Doing Work.- Energy Consumption and Gross Domestic Product.- Energy Fuel Use Patterns in the United States.- Questions.- 2 Petroleum.- Formation of Petroleum.- Recovery of Petroleum.- OPEC-Objectives and Member Countries.- The Arab Oil Embargo of 1973.- Petroleum Reserves, Known and Recoverable.- Petroleum Demand.- Production of Petroleum.- United States Petroleum Demand, 1950 to Present.- U.S Petroleum Imports, 1950 to Present.- Reasons for Concern About Large and Growing Petroleum Imports.- The Strategic Petroleum Reserve.- Profits and Losses in the Oil Industry.- Total Energy Impact of Transportation in the United States.- Petroleum Refining.- Distillation.- Catalysis.- Octane Number.- The Catalytic Converter.- Unleaded Gasoline.- Catalytic Dehydrogenation.- Catalytic Reforming.- Catalytic Alkylation.- Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG).- Catalytic Cracking.- Other Techniques for Increasing Gasoline Yields.- The Diesel Engine.- Lubricating Oils.- Questions.- 3 Natural Gas.- Natural Gas Reserves, Known and Recoverable.- Production of Natural Gas.- Coal Bed Methane.- Price Controls on Natural Gas.- Uses of Natural Gas.- Questions.- 4 Coal.- Origin of Coal.- Coal Rank.- Coal Mining.- Coal Resources Versus Coal Reserves.- Coal Reserves and Resources.- Coal Production and Consumption in the U.S.- Coal Uses.- Transporting Coal.- Questions.- 5 Gaseous and Liquid Fuels from Coal.- Coal Structure as It Relates to Coal Conversion.- Conversion of Coal to Gaseous Fuels.- High-Btu Gas (SNG).- Probable Uses of Gaseous Fuels from Coal.- In-Situ Gasification of Coal.- Status of Commercialization of Coal Gasification.- Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels.- Indirect Liquefaction: The Fischer-Tropsch Process.- Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Processes.- Sulfur Removal in Coal Conversion Processes.- The Cost of the First Commercial Coal Liquefaction Plants.- The Uncertain Voice of the Federal Government and the Future of Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal.- Alcohol Fuel from Coal.- Questions.- 6 Fuels from Oil Shale, Tar Sands, Biomass, Waste.- Oil Shale.- Recovery of Oil Shale.- Recovery of Raw Shale Oil.- The Spent Shale Problem.- Oil Shale Resources and Reserves.- Status of Oil Shale Recovery Technology.- Tar Sands.- The United States Reserves.- Reserves in Canada and South America.- Status of Development.- Energy from Biomass.- Energy from Waste.- Municipal and Industrial Waste.- Wood Waste.- Animal Waste.- Questions.- 7 Fossil Fuel Reserves Versus Consumption.- Comparative Amounts of Fossil Fuel Reserves.- Energy Consumption in the United States.- Substitution of Coal for Petroleum and/or Natural Gas.- Questions.- 8 Electric Power.- Electric Current.- Generation of a Voltage.- Producing Rotation of the Coil in the Magnetic Field.- The Carnot Cycle.- Energy Source Contributions to Electric Power Generation.- Uses of Electricity in the Residential and Commercial Sectors.- Electricity and the Debate over Use of Fossil Fuels.- Electric Heating of Homes.- Substitution for Fossil Fuels in Electric Power Generation.- The Uneven Power Demand-Base Load Versus Peak Load.- Blackout and Brownout.- Long-Distance Power Transmission.- The Transformer and Substation.- Electric Power Generation Costs Versus Energy Resource.- Growth in Electric Power Demand.- Other Facts and Factors in Electric Power Generation.- Questions.- 9 Nuclear Energy.- Atomic Number.- Isotopes.- Nuclear Fission.- Enrichment.- Critical Mass and the Nuclear Reaction Process.- Energy Release in a Nuclear Reaction.- The Nuclear Fission Process.- The Principle of Half-Life.- Concept of Transmutation in Radioactive Waste Disposal.- The Reactor for Controlled Nuclear Fission for Electric Power.- Types of Reactors.- The Breeder Reactor.- General Statements About Controlled Nuclear Fission.- Nuclear Fusion.- Nuclear Fusion Temperatures.- Containment of the Reactants to Achieve Fusion.- Fusion Fuels.- Features of Nuclear Fusion as an Energy Resource.- Cold Fusion.- Questions.- 10 Solar Energy.- Applications.- Space Heating.- Back-Up System.- Solar Electric Power Generation.- Photovoltaic Electric Power Generation.- Concept of a Space System.- Status of Solar Energy.- Questions.- 11 Other Sources of Energy for Electric Power Generation.- Hydroelectric Power.- Geothermal Energy.- Energy from Wind.- Energy from the Tides.- Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).- Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD).- Fuel Cells.- Questions.- 12 Energy Storage.- Storage Batteries.- Pumped Storage.- Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier.- The Flywheel.- Compressed Air for Energy Storage.- Questions.- 13 Energy Use in Agriculture.- Productivity per Person Working on the Farm.- Increase in Productivity per Acre.- Use of Insecticides in Agriculture.- Use of Herbicides in Agriculture.- Energy Requirements in Production of Protein.- Questions.- 14 Energy Use in Transportation.- Freight Transport and the Carbon Dioxide Debate.- People Transport and the Carbon Dioxide Debate.- The Automobile.- Factors that May Increase Miles per Gallon in Driving.- Vehicle Weight and Safety.- Energy Efficiency in People Transport.- Energy Efficiency in Freight Transport.- The Electric Automobile.- Questions.- 15 Pollution of the Atmosphere from Energy Use.- The Earth: Unique in Our Solar System as a Habitat for People.- Energy Use and the Generation of Pollution.- Fossil Fuel Combustion.- The Atmosphere.- The Temperature (Thermal) Inversion.- Fossil Fuel-Generated Pollutants and Their Health Effects.- Ozone and the Ozone Layer.- Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming.- The Mean Temperature in the Northern Hemisphere.- Carbon Dioxide and Predictions of Global Warming.- Energy Consumption and Job Availability in an Industrialized Nation.- Carbon Dioxide, Plant Growth, and Agricultural Productivity.- Questions.- 16 Energy Conservation.- Cost/Benefit Analysis of Energy Conservation Measures.- Energy Conservation in the United States, 1978-1982.- Potential Ways of Conserving Energy.- Gas- or Oil-Fired Furnace Versus Electric Heating: Considerations.- Questions.- 17 Energy Supply for the Future.- Basis for the Projections.- The Time Period 1 to 10 years.- The Time Period 10 to 25 years.- Long Term: Beyond 25 Years.- Domestic and Commercial Heating.- Electric Power.- Minor Impact Only in the Long Term.- Options with Only Incidental Application.- Questions.