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Image processing is an applications area. In this area there are many op portunities to apply art and experience, as well as knowledge from various sciences and engineering disciplines, to the creation of products and pro cesses for which society has urgent need. Without this need, few would be interested in the subject. This point of view motivates this work and has influenced the selection and treatment of topics. It will be noticed that the word "digital" is not in the title. While much of present-day image processing is implemented digitally, this work is not intended for those who think that image processing is a branch of digital signal processing, except perhaps to try to change their minds. This book grew out of courses taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by the author and two of his former students, T.S. Huang and O.J. Tretiak. Like the courses, it is primarily intended for electrical engineers and computer scientists who plan to work in the field. It has not proven necessary to spend much time on strictly digital issues, since the students either know that material already or can learn it very easily by 1 themselves. It also has been unnecessary to be encyclopedic, since Pratt has already performed this important service.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »image processing - imaging - material - signal processing
1. Introduction.- 1.1 What is Image Processing?.- 1.2 Descriptions of Images.- 1.3 Sources and Types of Images.- 1.4 Processing Images.- 1.5 Purposes of Processing.- 1.6 Image Quality.- 1.7 A Generalized Image Processing System.- 1.7.1 Source/Object.- 1.7.2 Optical System.- 1.7.3 The Camera.- 1.7.4 Source/Sink Coder.- 1.7.5 Channel Coder.- 1.7.6 Channel.- 1.7.7 Channel Decoder.- 1.7.8 Source/Sink Decoder.- 1.7.9 The Display.- 1.8 A Simple Television System.- 1.8.1 Choice of Components.- 1.8.2 Scanning Standards.- 1.8.3 Sampling in the Time Domain.- 1.8.4 Explaining Motion Rendition and Flicker.- 1.8.5 Sampling in the Space Domain.- 1.8.6 Analog Transmission.- 1.9 Lessons for the System Designer.- 2. Light and Optical Imaging Systems.- 2.1 Light Sources.- 2.2 Photometry.- 2.3 Luminous Transfer of Simple Optical Systems.- 2.4 Some Nonideal Behavior of Simple Optical Systems.- 2.4.1 The Cosine4 Law and Vignetting.- 2.4.2 Aberrations.- 2.4.3 Diffraction.- 2.5 Fourier Optics and the Modulation Transfer Function.- 2.5.1 The Linearity of Optical Systems.- 2.5.2 The Spectrum of Images.- 2.5.3 The Aperture Effect.- 2.5.4 Temporal Video Signals.- 2.5.5 The Correlation Function and the Shape of the Spectrum.- 2.5.6 Concluding Remarks About the Video Spectrum.- 2.6 Quantum Phenomena and Related Noise Sources.- 2.6.1 The Quantum Nature of Light.- 2.6.2 Shot Noise.- 2.6.3 Other Noise Sources.- 2.7 Lessons for the System Designer.- Appendix 2.1.- 3. Perception of Images.- 3.1 Seeing in the Dark.- 3.1.1 Visual Thresholds.- 3.2 Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.2.1 Lightness Curves.- 3.3 The Effect of Shape.- 3.3.1 Relationship Between Sharpness and Contrast.- 3.4 Masking.- 3.5 Temporal Phenomena.- 3.5.1 Frequency Response and Flicker.- 3.5.2 Motion Rendition.- 3.6 Lessons for the System Designer.- 4. Sampling, Interpolation, and Quantization.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Sampling Theorem.- 4.3 The Two-Dimensional Spectrum.- 4.4 Interpolation of Digital Images.- 4.5 The Presampling Filter.- 4.6 Hexagonal Sampling.- 4.7 Quantization.- 4.7.1 Amplitude of the Quantizing Noise.- 4.7.2 Randomization of the Quantization Noise.- 4.7.3 Filtering the Noise Spectrum.- 4.7.4 Combination of Filtering and Randomization.- 4.8 Lessons for the System Designer.- 5. Compression.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Information-Preserving Coding.- 5.2.1 The Basis for Statistical Coding.- 5.2.2 Coding Based on Conditional Probability Distributions..- 5.2.3 Noise as a Limit to the Efficiency of Entropy Coding.- 5.2.4 The Variation of Entropy with Sampling Density.- 5.3 Graphics Coding.- 5.3.1 One-Dimensional Run-Length Coding.- 5.3.2 Two-Dimensional Coding.- 5.3.3 Some Practical Coding Systems and Their Performance as a Function of Resolution.- 5.3.4 CCITT Standard Codes.- 5.4 Coding of Continuous-Tone Images.- 5.4.1 Lossless Coding.- 5.4.2 Approximation in the Space Domain (Waveform Coding).- 5.5 Lessons for the System Designer.- 6. Image Processing in the Graphic Arts.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Type Composition.- 6.2.1 Type Casting Machines.- 6.2.2 Photocomposition.- 6.2.3 Text Editing Systems.- 6.2.4 Page Composition.- 6.3 Modern Plate Making.- 6.3.1 Letterpress.- 6.3.2 Lithography.- 6.3.3 Gravure.- 6.4 The Halftone Process.- 6.4.1 Introduction.- 6.4.2 The Photographic Halftone Process.- 6.4.3 Fundamental Considerations in Halftone Reproduction ..- 6.4.4 Electronic Screens.- 6.5 Lessons for the System Designer.- References.