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Engineering - Electronics & Electrical Engineering | Data Converters

Data Converters

Maloberti, Franco

2007, xvi, 440 p.

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This book is the first graduate-level textbook presenting a comprehensive treatment of Data Converters. The advancement of digital electronics urged the availability of a still missing support for teaching and self-learning analog-digital interfaces at many levels: the specification, the conversion methods and architectures, the circuit design and the testing.

This book, after the necessary study of the background theoretical elements, covers aspects and provides elements for a deep and comprehensive knowledge. The breath and the level of detail of topics is enhanced by introductory material in each chapter and the use of many examples, most of them in the form of computer behavioral simulations. The examples and the end-of-chapter problems help in understanding and encouraging self-practice using tools that are effective for training and for design activity.

This is a textbook that is also essential for engineering professionals as it was written in response to a shortage of organically organized material on the topic. The book assumes a solid background in analog and digital circuits as well as a working knowledge of simulation tools for circuit and behavioral

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » CMOS - Diode - Generator - IC - LED - Modulation - Modulator - Potentiometer - Simulink - analog - computer - electronics - integrated circuit - simulation

Related subjects » Circuits & Systems - Electronics & Electrical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering - Optical & Electronic Materials - Optics & Lasers

Table of contents 

1. BACKGROUND ELEMENTS. 1.1 The Ideal Data Converter. 1.2 The Sampling. 1.2.1 Undersampling. 1.2.2 Sampling-time Jitter. 1.3 Amplitude Quantization. 1.3.1 Quantization Noise. 1.3.2 Properties of the Quantization Noise. 1.4 kT/C Noise. 1.5 Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms. 1.5.1 Windowing. 1.6 Coding Schemes. 1.7 The D/A Converter. 1.7.1 Ideal Reconstruction. 1.7.2 Real Reconstruction. 1.8 The z-Transform. References. 2. DATA CONVERTERS SPECIFICATIONS. 2.1 Type of Converter. 2.2 Conditions of Operation. 2.3 Converter Specifications. 2.3.1 General Features. 2.4 Static Specifications. 2.5 Dynamic Specifications. 2.6 Digital and Switching Specifications. References. 3. NYQUIST-RATE D/A CONVERTERS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.1.1 DAC Applications. 3.1.2 Voltage and Current References. 3.2 Types of Converters. 3.3 Resistor based Architectures. 3.3.1 Resistive Divider. 3.3.2 X-Y Selection. 3.3.3 Settling of the Output Voltage. 3.3.4 Segmented Architectures. 3.3.5 Effect of the Mismatch. 3.3.6 Trimming and Calibration. 3.3.7 Digital Potentiometer. 3.3.8 R-2R Resistor Ladder DAC. 3.3.9 Deglitching. 3.4 Capacitor Based Architectures. 3.4.1 Capacitive Divider DAC. 3.4.2 Capacitive MDAC. 3.4.3 'Flip Around' MDAC. 3.4.4 Hybrid Capacitive-Resistive DACs. 3.5 Current Source based Architectures. 3.5.1 Basic Operation. 3.5.2 Unity Current Generator. 3.5.3 Random Mismatch Unary Selection. 3.5.4 Current Sources Selection. 3.5.5 Current Switching and Segmentation. 3.5.6 Switching of Current Sources. 3.6 Other Architectures. References. 4. NYQUIST RATE A/D CONVERTERS. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Timing Accuracy. 4.2.1 Metastability error. 4.3 Full-Flash Converters. 4.3.1 Reference Voltages. 4.3.2 Offset of Comparators. 4.3.3 Offset Auto-zeroing. 4.3.4 Practical Limits. 4.4 Subranging and Two-Step Converters. 4.4.1 Accuracy requirements. 4.4.2 Two-step Converter as a Non-linear Process. 4.5 Folding Technique and Interpolation. 4.5.1 Double Folding. 4.5.2 Interpolation. 4.5.3 Use of Interpolation in Flash Converters. 4.5.4 Use of Interpolation in Folding Architectures. 4.5.5 Interpolation for Improving Linearity. 4.6 Time-Interleaved Converters. 4.6.1 Accuracy requirements. 4.7 Successive Approximation Converter. 4.7.1 Errors and Error Correction. 4.8 Pipeline Converters. 4.8.1 Accuracy Requirements. 4.8.2 Digital Correction. 4.8.3 Dynamic Performances. 4.8.4 Sampled-data Residue Generator. 4.9 Other Architectures. 4.9.1 Cyclic (or Algorithmic) Converter. 4.9.2 Integrating Converter. 4.9.3 Voltage-to-Frequency Converter. References. 5. CIRCUITS FOR DATA CONVERTERS. 5.1 Sample-and-Hold. 5.2 Diode Bridge S&H. 5.2.1 Diode Bridge Imperfections. 5.2.2 Improved Diode Bridge. 5.3 Switched Emitter Follower. 5.3.1 Circuit Implementation. 5.3.2 Complementary Bipolar S&H. 5.4 Features of S&H made by BJT. 5.5 CMOS Sample-and-Hold. 5.5.1 Clock Feedthrough. 5.5.2 Clock Feedthrough Compensation. 5.5.3 Two-stages OTA as T&H. 5.5.4 Use of the Virtual Ground in CMOS S&H. 5.5.5 Noise Analysis. 5.6 CMOS Switch with Low Supply Voltage. 5.6.1 Switch Bootstrapping. 5.7 Folding Amplifiers. 5.7.1 Current-Folding. 5.7.2 Voltage Folding. 5.8 Voltage-to-Current Converter. 5.9 Clock Generation. References. 6. OVERSAMPLING DATA CONVERTERS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.1.1 Delta and Sigma-Delta Modulation. 6.2 First and Second Order Sigma-Delta Modulators. 6.2.1 Intuitive Views. 6.2.2 Use of 1-bit Quantization. 6.2.3 Second Order Modulator. 6.2.4 Quantization Error and Dithering. 6.3 High Order Noise Shaping. 6.3.1 Dynamic Range Considerations. 6.3.2 Dynamic Ranges Optimization. 6.4 Practical Considerations. 6.4.1 Offset. 6.4.2 Finite Op-Amp Gain. 6.4.3 Finite Op-Amp Bandwidth. 6.4.4 Finite Op-Amp Slew-Rate. 6.4.5 Noise Considerations. 6.4.6 ADC Non-idealities. 6.4.7 DAC Non-idealities. 6.4.8 Single-bit and Multi-bit. 6.4.9 SNR Enhancement. 6.5 High Order Architectures. 6.5.1 Use of Weighted Feedback Summation. 6.5.2 Use of Local

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