Operational Amplifiers – Theory and Design, Second Edition presents a systematic circuit design of operational amplifiers. Containing state-of-the-art material as well as the essentials, the book is written to appeal to both the circuit designer and the system designer. It is shown that the topology of all operational amplifiers can be divided into nine main overall configurations. These configurations range from one gain stage up to four or more stages. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth.
Additional chapters included are on systematic design of µV-offset operational amplifiers and precision instrumentation amplifiers by applying chopping, auto-zeroing, and dynamic element-matching techniques. Also, techniques for frequency compensation of amplifiers with high capacitive loads have been added.
Operational Amplifiers – Theory and Design, Second Edition presents high-frequency compensation techniques to HF-stabilize all nine configurations. Special emphasis is placed on low-power low-voltage architectures with rail-to-rail input and output ranges.
In addition to presenting characterization of operational amplifiers by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters it also develops the design of fully differential operational amplifiers and operational floating amplifiers.
Operational Amplifiers – Theory and Design, Second Edition is carefully structured and enriched by numerous figures, problems and simulation exercises and is ideal for the purpose of self-study and self-evaluation.
Summary. Introduction. Notation.
1. DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. 1.1 Operational Inverting Amplifier (OIA). 1.2 Operational Voltage Amplifier (OVA). 1.3 Operational Current Amplifier (OCA). 1.4 Operational Floating Amplifier (OFA). 1.5 Conclusion. 1.6 References.
2. MACROMODELS. 2.1 Operational Inverting Amplifier (OIA). 2.2 Operational Voltage Amplifier (OVA). 2.3 Operational Current Amplifier (OCA). 2.4 Operational Floating Amplifier (OFA). 2.5 Macromodels in Spice. 2.6 Measurement Techniques for Operational Amplifiers. 2.7 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 2.8 References.
3. APPLICATIONS. 3.1 Operational Inverting Amplifier. 3.2 Operational Voltage Amplifier. 3.3 Operational Current Amplifier. 3.4 Operational Floating Amplifier. 3.5 Dynamic range. 3.6 Problems. 3.7 References.
4. INPUT STAGES. 4.1 Offset, Bias, and Drift. 4.2 Noise. 4.3 Common-Mode Rejection. 4.4 Rail-to-rail Input Stages. 4.5 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 4.6 References.
5. OUTPUT STAGES. 5.1 Power Efficiency of Output Stages. 5.2 Classification of Output Stages. 5.3 Feedforward Class-AB Biasing (FFB). 5.4 Feedback Class-AB Biasing (FBB). 5.5 Saturation Protection and Current Limitation. 5.6 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 5.7 References.
6. OVERALL DESIGN. 6.1 Classification of Overall Topologies. 6.2 Frequency Compensation. 6.3 Slew Rate. 6.4 Non-Linear Distortion. 6.5 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 6.6 References.
7. DESIGN EXAMPLES. 7.1 GA-CF Configuration. 7.2 GA-GA Configuration. 7.3 GA-CF-VF Configuration. 7.4 GA-GA-VF Configuration. 7.5 GA-CF-VF/GA Configuration. 7.6 GA-GA-VF/GA Configuration. 7.7 GA-CF-GA Configuration. 7.8 GA-GA-GA Configuration. 7.9 GA-GA-GA-GA Configuration. 7.10 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 7.11 References.
8. FULLY DIFFERENTIAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. 8.1 Fully Differential GA-CF Configuration. 8.2 Fully Differential GA-CF-GA Configuration. 8.3 Fully Differential GA-GA-GA-GA Configuration. 8.4 Problems and Simulation Exercises. 8.5 References.
9. OPERATIONAL FLOATING AMPLIFIERS (OFA). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Unipolar Voltage-to-Current converter. 9.3 Differential Voltage-to-Current converters. 9.4 Instrumentation Amplifiers. 9.5 Universal class-AB voltage-to-current converter design using an Instrumentation Amplifier. 9.6 Universal class-A OFA design. 9.7 Universal class-AB OFA realization with power-supply isolation. 9.8 Universal Class-AB OFA design. 9.9 Problems. 9.10 References.
10. LOW NOISE AND LOW OFFSET AMPLIFIERS. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Appications of Instrumentation Amplifiers. 10.3 Three-OpAmp Instrumentation Amplifiers. 10.4 Indirect-Current-Feedback InstAmps. 10.5 Auto-Zero Opamps and InstAmps. 10.6 Chopper OpAmps and InstAmps. 10.7 Chopper-Stabilized OpAmps and InstAmps. 10.8 Chopper-Stabilized and AZ Chopper OA and IA. 10.9 Chopper Amplifiers with Ripple-Reduction Loop. 10.10 Chopper Amplifiers with Capacitive-Coupled Input. 10.11 Gain Accuracy of Instrumentation Amplifiers. 10.12 Summary Low Offset. 10.13 References.