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Engineering - Circuits & Systems | Linear CMOS RF Power Amplifiers - A Complete Design Workflow

Linear CMOS RF Power Amplifiers

A Complete Design Workflow

Solar Ruiz, Hector, Berenguer Pérez, Roc

2014, XIV, 185 p. 153 illus., 35 illus. in color.

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  • Integration of linear power amplifiers with practical architectures in developing a fully integrated RF CMOS PAs
  • Provides practical design guidelines for the integration of inductors for power applications
  • Includes designs of high efficiency linear power amplifiers in the power transmission chain

This work describes the design flow for the optimization of linear CMOS power amplifiers from the first steps of the design to the final IC implementation and tests. The authors also focus on design guidelines for the inductor’s geometrical characteristics for power applications and cover their measurement and characterization. Additionally, a model is proposed which facilitates design in terms of transistor sizing, required inductor quality factors or minimum supply voltage. The model considers the limitations that CMOS processes can impose on implementation. The book also details various techniques and architectures that allow for optimization.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » CMOS Processes - CMOS Radio Frequency - CMOS Transceiver - Linear CMOS - Power Amplifiers - Power Amplifiers Design - RF IC Circuit Design

Related subjects » Circuits & Systems - Electronics & Electrical Engineering - Energy Technology - Systems, Storage and Harvesting

Table of contents 

Introduction.- Requirements of wireless standards.- Transmit output power levels.- Digital modulation considerations.- CMOS transceivers.- Impact of the Power Amplifier in the transceiver performance.- Power amplifier integration considerations.- Organization of the book.- CMOS performance issues.- Breakdown voltage phenomena.- Hard breakdown.- Soft breakdown.- Output load.- Optimum load concept.- Conjugate vs. load match.- Knee voltage effect.- Substrate losses in CMOS.- Current limits in CMOS.- Power Amplifier metrics.- AM-AM distortion.- Saturated power (PSAT) and 1dB compression point (P1dB).- Effect of the PSAT and P1dB on digital modulation.- Output third-order intercept point (OIP3).- AM-PM distortion.- Effect of the AM-PM distortion.- Digital channel metrics.- Spectral regrowth.- Error vector magnitude.- Efficiency metrics.- Drain efficiency.- Power Added Efficiency.- Power capability.- CMOS integration useful architectures.- Integrated CMOS Power combination.- Magnetic coupling.- Simple parallel combination.- Doherty Power Amplifier Solutions.- Dynamic Supply.- Digital predistortion.- Cascode transistor.- Thick oxide transistors.- Self-biased cascode Power Amplifiers.- RF Power Amplifier Fundamentals.- Linear and non-linear Power Amplifiers.- Current-source mode Power Amplifiers.- Class A Power Amplifiers.- Class B Power Amplifiers.- Class AB Power Amplifiers.- Class C Power Amplifiers.- Switch mode Power Amplifiers.- Class D Power Amplifiers.- Class E Power Amplifiers.- Class F Power Amplifiers.- Power Amplifier design.- A model for linear Power Amplifiers.- Model description.- Linear region of the transistor conductance.- Non-linear region of the transistor conductance.- Output power, drain efficiency and PAE.- Model based analyses.- Effect of the cascode transistor.- Effect of the inductor parasitics.- Effect of the PA biasing.- Starting point parameters.- Measurements comparison.- Power amplifier design.- Schematic circuit description.- Design flow.- Ouptut network.- Output stage.- Input network.- Driver stage.- Interstage matching and stability.- Power inductor design.- Top metal layer considerations.- Multiple metal layers considerations.- Inductor geometry considerations.- Accuracy analysis of the electromagnetic simulator.- Power inductor design flow.- Layout design.- Circuit isolation.- Differential design considerations.- Balanced inductors.- Common-centroid.- Passive components.- Low value resistors.- RF capacitors.- Stage isolation.- PAD design.- Test set-ups and results.- One-tone PA measurements.- Test set-up.- Current consumption.- Input matching.- Power gain.- Output 1dB compression points.- Saturated output power.- Power Added Efficiency.- Digital channel PA measurements.- Test set-up.- Error vector magnitude.- Spectrum mask.- Reliability and maximum ratings.- Power Inductor measurements.- Test setput.- Inductance.- Quality factor.- Conclusions.

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