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CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers starts with a comprehensive introduction to general frequency synthesis. Different architectures and synthesizer building blocks are discussed with their relative importance on synthesizer specifications. The process of synthesizer specification derivation is illustrated with the DCS-1800 standard as a general test case.
The book tackles the design of fractional-N synthesizers in CMOS on circuit level as well as system level. The circuit level focuses on high-speed prescaler design up to 12 GHz in CMOS and on fully integrated, low-phase-noise LC-VCO design. High-Q inductor integration and simulation in CMOS is elaborated and flicker noise minimization techniques are presented, ranging from bias point choice to noise filtering techniques.
On a higher level, a systematic design strategy has been developed that trades off all noise contributions and fast dynamics for integrated capacitance (area). Moreover, a theoretical DeltaSigma phase noise analysis is presented, extended with a fast non-linear analysis method to accurately predict the influence of PLL non-linearities on the spectral purity of the DeltaSigma fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »CMOS - Modulation - Phase - Standard - analog - communication - filter - material - simulation - system - telecommunications
I: Abstract. List of Symbols and Abbreviations. Table of Contents. 1: Introduction. 1.1. Telecommunications: An Overview. 1.2. Telecommunications: A Market Perception. 1.3. Integration: Why, How and In What? 1.4. The Research Book. 1.5. The Outline of the Book. 2: On Frequency Synthesis. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Indirect or Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers. 2.3. The Synthesizer Data Sheet. 2.4. Introduction to PLL building blocks. 2.5. Advanced PLL Frequency Synthesizers. 2.6. Frequency Synthesis for the DCS-1800 System. 2.7. Conclusion. 3: High-Speed CMOS Prescalers. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. The Phase-Switching Dual-Modulus Prescaler. 3.3. A Single-Ended 1.5 GHz 8/9 Dual-Modulus Prescaler in 0.7 mum CMOS. 3.4. A Single-ended 1.8 GHz 8/9 DMP in 0.8 mum 'Radiation Hardened' BiCMOS. 3.5. A 1.8 GH.z 16-modulus /64-/79 Prescaler in 0.25 mum CMOS. 3.6. A 12 GHz /128 Prescaler in 0.25 mum CMOS. 3.7. Conclusion. 4: Monolithic CMOS LC-VCOs. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. General Oscillator Theory. 4.3. A Design-Oriented Non-Linear Phase Noise Theory. 4.4. Integrated LC-tanks in CMOS. 4.5. The VCO Circuit Design. 4.6. Implementations. 4.7. Comparison with Published State-of-the-Art VCOs. 4.8. Conclusion. 5: Monolithic Phase Loops. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Loop Filter Topology Selection. 5.3. Dual-Path Fourth-Order PLL. 5.4. The PLL Building Block Circuits. 5.5. Experimental Results. 5.6. Conclusion. 6: A 1.8 GHz CMOS &Dgr;&Sgr; Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer. 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. The Fractional-N Principle. 6.3. Conventional Fractional Compensation Methods. 6.4. &Dgr;&Sgr; Modulation in Fractional-N Synthesis. 6.5. &Dgr;&Sgr; Modulators for Fractional-N Synthesis. 6.6. The Theoretical &Dgr;&Sgr; Phase Noise Analysis. 6.7. A Fast Non-Linear &Dgr;&Sgr; Phase Noise Analysis Method. 6.8. The Fractional-N Synthesizer Circuit Design. 6.9. Experimental Results. 6.10. Conclusion. 7: Conclusions. 7.1. A 2V CMOS Cellular Transceiver Front-End. 7.2. Main Contributions and Achievements. 7.3. Epilogue. A: &Dgr;&Sgr; Modulators with DC-inputs. B: Additional Results of the Non-Linear Analysis for Fractional-N Synthesizers. Index. Bibliography.