Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000, XVI, 167 pp. 30 figs., 44 tabs.
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In the context of conducting research on the consequences of scientific and tech nological advance, the Europaische Akademie is also concerned with the support of scientists in the doctoral or post-doctoral phase who are working on topics or methods within its research spectrum. The first dissertation supported by the Europaische Akademie is published in this volume of the book series "Wissen schaftsethik und Technikfolgenbeurteilung". One of the research areas of the Europaische Akademie is the scientific investi gation of environmental consequences of new technologies. Energy conversion and transportation are thereby considered as important areas of technological advance. The dissertation follows this thread by comparing the impacts of natural gas vehicles on human health and the environment with those of reference vehi cles fueled by petrol and Diesel. This question is addressed within the framework of Life Cycle Assessment, which is one important instrument of environmental Technology Assessment. Within this framework, a new method for the assessment of impacts on human health is developed and applied. In this way, the dissertation contributes to the methodological research of the Europaische Akademie in the field of Technology Assessment. The book is addressed to researchers in the fields of alternative fuels, Techno logy Assessment, and Life Cycle Assessment in particular. It may also be of inter est to decisionmakers and the wider public concerned with environmental impacts of energy conversion and transportation. It was written in English in order to be accessible to an international audience.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Application - Dissertation - Natur - development - life cycle management (LCM) - life-cycle assessment (LCA) - management
1 Introduction.- 2 Life Cycle Assessment.- 2.1 Life Cycle Assessment as an Instrument of Technology Assessment.- 2.2 Definition and Phases.- 2.3 Goal and Scope Definition.- 2.4 Inventory Analysis.- 2.5 Impact Assessment.- 2.5.1 General Framework and Impact Categories.- 2.5.2 Methods for Selected Impact Categories.- 18.104.22.168 Extraction of Abiotic Resources.- 22.214.171.124 Climate Change.- 126.96.36.199 Acidification.- 188.8.131.52 Nitrification.- 184.108.40.206 Human Toxicity.- 220.127.116.11 Photo-Oxidant Formation.- 2.6 Interpretation.- 3 Site-Dependent Impact Indicators for Human Health Effects of Airborne Pollutants.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Statistical Calculation of Class Averages.- 3.3 Classification of Emission Sites in Terms of Population Density.- 3.3.1 Classification Scheme.- 3.3.2 Radial Population Density Distribution.- 3.4 Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants.- 3.4.1 Dispersion of Primary Pollutants in the Short Range.- 18.104.22.168 Gaussian Dispersion Model.- 22.214.171.124 Generic Meteorological Data.- 126.96.36.199 Pollutant Concentrations.- 3.4.2 Long-Range Transport of Primary Pollutants and Formation of Secondary Pollutants.- 188.8.131.52 Windrose Trajectory Model.- 184.108.40.206 Pollutant Concentrations and Population Exposures.- 220.127.116.11 Analytical Estimates.- 3.5 Validity of the Statistical Assumptions.- 3.6 Results and Discussion.- 3.6.1 Traffic Emissions.- 3.6.2 Influence of the Emission Height.- 3.6.3 Variability of the Impacts within the Generic Spatial Classes.- 3.6.4 Relevance of Various Distance Ranges and of Street Canyons.- 3.6.5 Secondary Aerosols.- 3.6.6 Default Values for Other Countries.- 3.7 Summary and Conclusions.- 4 Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Vehicles: Inventory Analysis.- 4.1 Goal and Scope Definition.- 4.1.1 Introduction to the Case Study.- 4.1.2 System Boundaries.- 4.1.3 Selection of Pollutants and Impact Categories.- 4.1.4 Functional Unit.- 4.2 Fuel Supply Chains.- 4.2.1 Natural Gas.- 18.104.22.168 Input Data.- 22.214.171.124 Emissions and Cumulative Energy Demand.- 126.96.36.199 Spatial Disaggregation.- 4.2.2 Diesel and Petrol.- 188.8.131.52 Input Data.- 184.108.40.206 Emissions and Cumulative Energy Demand.- 220.127.116.11 Spatial Disaggregation.- 4.2.3 Comparison of the Upstream Emissions.- 4.3 Buses.- 4.3.1 Vehicle Operation.- 4.3.2 Combination of Upstream and Vehicle Emissions.- 4.4 Cars.- 4.4.1 Vehicle Operation.- 4.4.2 Combination of Upstream and Vehicle Emissions.- 5 Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas Vehicles: Impact Assessment and Interpretation.- 5.1 Impact Assessment.- 5.1.1 Site-Dependent Assessment of Human Health Impacts.- 18.104.22.168 Upstream Processes.- 22.214.171.124 Damage Factors for Vehicle Emissions.- 126.96.36.199 Buses.- 188.8.131.52 Cars.- 5.1.2 Generic Assessment for Other Impact Categories.- 184.108.40.206 Buses.- 220.127.116.11 Cars.- 5.2 Interpretation.- 6 Summary and Outlook.- References.