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Energy - Policy, Economics, Management & Transport | Energy Resources and Systems

Energy Resources and Systems

Volume 2: Renewable Resources

Ghosh, Tushar, Prelas, Mark

2011, XII, 727p. 336 illus., 171 illus. in color.

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Textbook Excellence Award
  • Exhaustive treatment of subject
  • Hot topic
  • Companion volume to earlier volume

This second volume of Energy Resources and Systems is focused on renewable energy resources. Renewable energy mainly comes from wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal, ocean, bioenergy, ethanol and hydrogen. Each of these energy resources is important and growing. For example, high-head hydroelectric energy is a well established energy resource and already contributes about 20% of the world’s electricity. Some countries have significant high-head resources and produce the bulk of their electrical power by this method. However, the bulk of the world’s high-head hydroelectric resources have not been exploited, particularly by the underdeveloped countries. Low-head hydroelectric is unexploited and has the potential to be a growth area. Wind energy is the fastest growing of the renewable energy resources for the electricity generation. Solar energy is a popular renewable energy resource. Geothermal energy is viable near volcanic areas. Bioenergy and ethanol have grown in recent years primarily due to changes in public policy meant to encourage its usage. Energy policies stimulated the growth of ethanol, for example, with the unintended side effect of rise in food prices. Hydrogen has been pushed as a transportation fuel.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » energy - future energy sources - renewable energy

Related subjects » Policy, Economics, Management & Transport - Renewable and Green Energy

Table of contents 

11 WIND ENERGY.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Harvesting Energy from Wind.- 11.3 Wind Resource Map.- 11.4 Land Area Requirement.- 11.5 Energy and Power from Wind.- 11.5.1 Betz Limit.- 11.6 Capacity Factor for a Wind Turbine.- 11.7 Energy Production.- 11.8 Turbine Types.- 11.8.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT).- 11.8.1.1 Wind Turbine Components.- 11.8.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs).- 11.8.2.1 Darrieus Wind Turbine.- 11.8.2.2 Savonius Wind Turbine.- 11.8.2.3 Other Lift-Type Vertical Axis Configurations.- 11.9 Comparison Between Turbines.- 11.10 Cost of Electricity from Wind Energy.- 11.10.1 Payback Time for Wind Energy Systems.- 11.10.2 Cost Reduction Efforts.- 11.11 Effect of Capacity Factor.- 11.12 Industrial Wind Turbines.- 11.13 Basic Principles of Wind Resource Evaluation.- 11.14 Wind Farm.- 11.14.1 Offshore Wind Farm.- 11.15 Small Wind Systems.- 11.16 Low Frequency Noise form Wind Turbines.- 11.16.1 Sound Intensity.- 11.16.2 Sound Pressure.- 11.16.3 The Sound Pressure Level.- 11.17 Wind Energy and Intermittency.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- 12 SOLAR ENERGY.- 12.1 Energy from the Sun.- 12.2 Energy Transfer to the Earth.- 12.2.1 Seasonal Variation.- 12.2.2 Height of the Sun in the Sky.- 12.3 Energy and the Sun.- 12.4 Use of Solar Energy.- 12.4.1 Solar Thermal Energy.- 12.4.1.1 Solar Water Heating.- 12.4.1.2 Space Heating of Buildings.- 12.4.1.3 Space Cooling.- 12.5 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP).- 12.5.1 Trough Systems.- 12.5.2 Power Tower Systems.- 12.5.3 Dish/Engine Systems.- 12.6 Solar Thermal Molten Salt Technology.- 12.7 Photovoltaics.- 12.7.1 PV Theory.- 12.7.2 The Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells.- 12.7.2.1 Theoretical Efficiency.- 12.7.7.2 Experimental Determination of PV Efficiency.- 12.7.3 The "Sun" Value.- 12.7.4 Effect of Thickness of the Cell.- 12.7.5 The Effect of Temperature.- 12.7.6 Effect of Dopant Concentration.- 12.8 From Cells to Arrays.- 12.9 Solar Cell Materials.- 12.9.1 Semiconducting Materials for Solar Cell.- 12.9.1.1 Silicon.- 12.9.1.2 Gallium Arsenide.- 12.10 Multijunction Cells.- 12.11 Hybrid Power Systems.- 12.12 Solar Lighting.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- 13 HYDROPOWER.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Hydropower Systems.- 13.3 Hydropower System Construction Methods.- 13.3.1 Impoundment.- 13.3.1.1 Dam.- 13.3.1.2 Spillways.- 13.4 Hydroturbine.- 13.4.1 Impulse Turbine.- 13.4.1.1 Pelton Turbine.- 13.4.1.2 Turgo Wheel Turbine.- 13.4.1.3 Cross-Flow or Ossberger Tutbine.- 13.4.2 Reaction Turbine.- 13.4.2.1 Propeller Turbine.- 13.4.2.2 Francis Turbine.- 13.4.2.3 Kinetic Energy Turbine.- 13.5 Selection of Turbines.- 13.6 Run-Of-The-River Hydropower Systems.- 13.7 Small Hydroelectric Power System.- 13.7.1 Components of a Small Hydro Power System.- 13.8 Micro-Head Hydropower Systems.- 13.8.1 Selection of Turbine for Small or Micro Head Systems.- 13.9 Pumped Storage Hydropower System.- 13.10 Calculation of Power from Water Flow.- 13.10.1 Local Head Losses.- 13.10.1.1 Head Loss Equations for Closed Channels.- 13.10.2 Head Losses in Open Channels.- 13.11 Hydropower System Efficiency.- 13.12 Fish Ladder and Fish Passage in Hydropower Systems.- Summary.- Reference.- Problem.- 14 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Resource Identification.- 14.3 Geothermal Systems.- 14.4 Applications.- 14.4.1 Electricity Generation.- 14.4.1.1 Hydrothermal Fluid.- 14.4.1.2 Geopressurized Brines.- 14.4.1.3 Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems.- 14.4.1.4 Magma.- 14.4.2 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy.- 14.4.3 Ambient Ground Heat/Geothermal Heat Pump.- 14.4.3.1 Closed-Loop Systems.- 14.4.3.2 Open-Loop System.- Summary.- References.- Problem.- 15 OCEAN ENERGY.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Wave Power.- 15.3 Theory.- 15.3.1 Linear Wave Theory.- 15.3.2 Energy Transport and Power.- 15.3.2.1 Deep-Water Waves.- 15.3.2.2 Shallow-Water Waves.- 15.3.2.3 Intermediate Depths.- 15.3.3 Applicability of Linear Wave Theory.- 15.3.4 Significant Wave Height.- 15.4 Wave Power.- 15.4.1 Tapered Channel (TAPCHAN).- 15.4.2 Terminator Device/Oscillating Water Column.- 15.4.3 Point Absorber.- 15.4.4 Attenuator.- 15.4.5 Overtopping Devices.- 15.5 Tidal Current Energy.- 15.5.1 Tidal Barrage Method.- 15.5.2 Principles of Operation.- 15.5.2.1 Single-Basin Tidal Barrage Mode.- 15.5.2.2 Double-Basin Systems.- 15.5.3 Tidal Lagoons.- 15.5.4 Tidal Fence.- 15.5.5 Tidal Turbine Method.- 15.5.5.1 Horizontal Axis Turbines (HAT).- 15.5.5.2 Vertical Axis Turbines.- 15.5.6 Linear Lift Mechanism or Oscillating Hydroplane Systems.- 15.5.7 Venture Based Systems.- 15.6 Tidal Farm.- 15.7 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).- 15.7.1 Closed-Cycle OTEC System.- 15.7.1.1 Work Done in the Closed/Anderson Cycle.- 15.7.2 Open-Cycle OTEC System.- 15.7.2.1 Work Done by Open Cycle OTEC.- 15.7.3 Hybrid OTEC System.- 15.7.4 Components of an OTEC System.- 15.7.5 Byproducts of OTEC System.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- 16 BIOENERGY.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Energy Source of Biomass.- 16.3 Composition of Biomass.- 16.3.1 Lignocellulosic Biomass.- 16.3.2 Hemicellulose.- 16.3.3 Lignin.- 16.4 Types of Biomass.- 16.5 Biomass Resources, Land Requirement, and Production.- 16.5.1 Energy Crops Production Area.- 16.5.2 Lignocellulosic Based Biomass.- 16.5.3 Land for Biomass.- 16.5.3 Land for Biomass.- 16.6 Wood Fuel.- 16.6.1 Unit of Wood.- 16.6.2 Wood Burning.- 16.7 Use of Biomass.- 16.7.1 Process Heat and Steam Generation.- 16.7.2 Electric Power Generation.-

16.7.2.1 Direct-Fired System.- 16.7.2.2 Co-Fired Biopower Plants.- 16.7.2.3 Gasification Process.- 16.7.2.4 Small, Modular Systems.- 16.8 Biomethane.- 16.9 BioFuels.- 16.9.1 Biodiesel.- 16.9.2 Biofuel Production Method.- 16.10 Biofeedstock for Industrial Chemicals.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- 17 ETHANOL.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Ethanol Production from Corn.- 17.2.1 Structure, Types, and Composition of Corn.- 17.2.2 Processing of Corn.- 17.2.2.1 Dry Milling Process for Ethanol Production.- 17.2.2.2 Wet Milling.- 17.2.3 Fermentation Process.- 17.2.4 Byproducts from Corn Processing.- 17.2.5 Comparison between Dry Mill and wet Mill Processes.- 17.3 Sugar Crop Fermentation.- 17.4 Corn Versus Sugarcane.- 17.5 Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass.- 17.5.1 Pretreatment.- 17.5.1.1 Uncatalyzed Steam Explosion Process.- 17.5.1.2 Liquid Hot Water Process.- 17.5.1.3 Acid Pretreatment Process.- 17.5.1.4 Lime Pretreatment.- 17.5.1.5 Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) Pretreatment.- 17.5.1.6 Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP) Pretreatment.- 17.5.2 Hydrolysis.- 17.5.2.1 Acid Hydrolysis.- 17.5.2.2 Enzymatic Hydrolysis.- 17.5.3 Fermentation and Process Integration.- 17.5.3.1 Sequential Hydrolysis and Fermentation(SHF).- 17.5.3.2 Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF).- 17.5.3.3 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation (SSCF).- 17.5.3.4 Consolidated BioProcessing (CBP).- 17.6 Energy Balance.- 17.7 DDGS Market.- 17.8 Water Requirements for Corn Growing.- 17.9 Fuel Ethanol Quality Comparison.- 17.10 E-Diesel.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- 18 HYDROGEN ENERGY.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Hydrogen Economy.- 18.3 Hydrogen Demand.- 18.4 Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine.- 18.5 Hydrogen Production Methods.- 18.5.1 Reforming of Natural Gas.- 18.5.1.1 Steam Methane Reforming Catalyst.- 18.5.1.2 Partial Oxidation.- 18.5.1.3 Autothermal Reforming for Hydrogen Production.- 18.5.2 Biomass Gasification.- 18.5.3 Reforming of Biofuel.- 18.5.4 Hydrogen from Coal.- 18.5.5 High-Temperature Water Splitting.- 18.5.5.1 One Step Reaction.- 18.5.5.2 Two or Multiple Step Reactions.- 18.6 Nuclear Energy for Hydrogen Production.- 18.6.1 Water Electrolysis.- 18.6.2 High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) of Steam.- 18.6.2.1 Efficiency of High Temperature Electrolysis Cycle.- 18.6.3 Thermochemical Water Splitting.- 18.6.3.1 Sulfur-Iodine Cycle (S-I Cycle).- 18.6.3.2 Ca–Br–Fe (UT-3) Cycle.- 16.6.3.3 Cu–Cl Cycle.- 18.6.3.4 Comparison of the Processes.- 18.6.3.5 Reactor Types for Hydrogen Production.- 18.7 Solar Energy for Hydrogen Production.- 18.7.1 High-Temperature Water Splitting - Solar Concentrators.- 18.7.2 Solar Reforming of Natural Gas.- 18.7.3 Thermochemical Solar Cycle.- 18.7.3.1 Zinc/Zinc Oxide Cycle.- 18.7.3.2 Fe3O4/FeO Cycle.- 18.8 Electrolytic Process.- 18.8.1 Alkaline Electrolysis.- 18.9 Thermochemical Hybrid Cycles.- 18.10 Hydrogen from Wind Energy.- 18.11 Hydrogen from Biomass.- 18.12 Photolytic Processes.- 18.12.1 Photobiological Water Splitting.- 18.12.1.1 Hydrogenase Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrogen Production.- 18.12.1.2 Nitrogenase-Enzyme Catalyzed Hydrogen Production.- 18.12.2 Photocatalytical Processes.- 18.13 Cost of Hydrogen Production.- 18.14 Hydrogen Storage.- 18.14.1 High Pressure Cylinder.- 18.14.1.1 Composite Tanks.- 18.14.1.2 Glass Microspheres.- 18.14.2 Liquid Hydrogen Storage System.- 18.14.2.1 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen (LH2).- 18.14.2.2 NaBH4 Solutions.- 18.14.2.3 Rechargeable Organic Liquids.- 18.14.3 Carbon and Other High Surface Area Materials18.14.4 Clathrates.- 18.14.5 Hydrides.- 18.14.5.1 Rechargeable Hydrides.- 18.14.5.2 Alanates.- 18.14.5.3 Borohydrides.- 18.14.5.4 Chemical Hydrides (H2O-Reactive).- 18.14.5.5 Chemical Hydrides (Thermal).- 18.14.5.6 Desorption of Hydrogen from Hydrides.- 18.14.5.7 Borane.- 18.15 Comparison of Hydrgen Storage Capacity.- 18.16 Hydrogen Delivery Methods.- Summary.- References.- Problems.- APPENDICES.- Appendix XI: Wind Energy.- Appendix XII: Solar Energy.- Appendix XIII: Hydropower.- Appendix XIV: Geothermal Energy.- Appendix XV: Ocean Energy.- Appendix XVI: Bioenergy.- Appendix XVII: Ethanol.- Appendix XVIII: Hydrogen.

 

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