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Education & Language | Advances in Health Sciences Education - incl. option to publish open access

Advances in Health Sciences Education

Advances in Health Sciences Education

Theory and Practice

Editor-in-Chief: Geoffrey R. Norman

ISSN: 1382-4996 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-1677 (electronic version)

Journal no. 10459

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Instructions for Authors

ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION 

Prospective authors are encouraged to download the file Standards for an Acceptable Manuscript (pdf, 519 kB), which describes in detail AHSE's requirements for an acceptable manuscript. If you do your best to ensure that your manuscript complies with these requirements, you will increase the likelihood that your manuscript will be accepted.

Online Manuscript Submission  

Springer now offers authors, editors and reviewers of Advances in Health Sciences Education the use of our fully web-enabled online manuscript submission and review system. To keep the review time as short as possible, we request authors to submit manuscripts online to the journal‘s editorial office. Our online manuscript submission and review system offers authors the option to track the progress of the review process of manuscripts in real time. Manuscripts should be submitted to: http://www.editorialmanager.com/ahse/
The online manuscript submission and review system for Advances in Health Sciences Education offers easy and straightforward log-in and submission procedures. This system supports a wide range of submission file formats: for manuscripts - Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT and LaTex; for figures - TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript. PDF is not an acceptable file format.
NOTE: In case you encounter any difficulties while submitting your manuscript online, please get in touch with the responsible Editorial Assistant by clicking on “CONTACT US” from the tool bar.
For further details about the types of articles acceptable to, and methodological standards for submissions, please refer to:
Standards for an Acceptable Manuscript.

Colour figures 

Colour figures may be printed at the author’s expense. Please indicate at submission which figures should be printed in colour, the number of colour pages you prefer and to which address we can send the invoice. In addition, please specify if figures are to appear together on a colour page.

Electronic figures 

Electronic versions of your figures must be supplied. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format. The following resolutions are optimal: line figures - 600 - 1200 dpi; photographs - 300 dpi; screen dumps - leave as is. Colour figures can be submitted in the RGB colour system. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman, Courier and Helvetica.

Language 

We appreciate any efforts that you make to ensure that the language is corrected before submission. This will greatly improve the legibility of your paper if English is not your first language.

Manuscript Presentation 

The journal's language is English. British English or American English spelling and terminology may be used, but either one should be followed consistently throughout the article. Leave adequate margins on all sides to allow reviewers' remarks. Please double−space all material, including notes and references. Quotations of more than 40 words should be set off clearly, either by indenting the left−hand margin or by using a smaller typeface. Use double quotation marks for direct quotations and single quotation marks for quotations within quotations and for words or phrases used in a special sense.
Number the pages consecutively with the first page containing:
  • running head (shortened title)
  • title
  • author(s)
  • affiliation(s)
  • full address for correspondence, including telephone and fax number and E−mail address

Abstract 

Please provide a short abstract of 100 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

Section Headings 

First-, second-, third-, and fourth-order headings should be clearly distinguishable but not numbered.

Key Words 

Please provide 5 to 10 key words or short phrases in alphabetical order.

Appendices 

Supplementary material should be collected in an Appendix and placed before the Notes and Reference sections.

Notes 

Please use endnotes rather than footnotes. Notes should be indicated by consecutive superscript numbers in the text and listed at the end of the article before the References. The references should also be collected in a list at the end of the article. A source reference note should be indicated by means of an asterisk after the title. This note should be placed at the bottom of the first page.

Cross-Referencing 

In the text, a reference identified by means of an author's name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses and page number(s) where appropriate. When there are more than two authors, only the first author's name should be mentioned, followed by 'et al.'. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like 'a' and 'b' after the date to distinguish the works.
Examples:
Winograd (1986, p. 204)
(Winograd, 1986a, b)
(Winograd, 1986; Flores et al., 1988)
(Bullen and Bennett, 1990)

Acknowledgements 

Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the References.

Figures 

All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-part figures ought to be labelled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit approximately within the column(s) of the journal. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references.

Tables 

Each table should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Finally, please place the tables after the figure legends in the manuscript.

References 

1. Journal article:
Barlow, D. H. & Lehman, C. L. (1996). Advances in the psychosocial treatment of anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 727-735
2. Book chapter:
Cutrona, C. E. & Russell, D. (1990). Type of social support and specific stress: Towards a theory of optimum matching. (In I.G. Sarason, B. R. Sarason, & G. Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 341-366). New York: Wiley.)
3. Book, authored:
Capland, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. (New York: Basic Books)
4. Book, edited:
Felner, R. D., Jason, L. A., Moritsugu, J. N. & Farber, S. S. (Eds.) (1983). Preventive psychology: Theory, research and practice. (New York: Pergamon Press)
5. Paper presented at a conference:
Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Stueve, A. & Pescosolido, B. A. (1996, November). Have public conceptions of mental health changed in the past half century? Does it matter? (Paper presented at the 124th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, New York)
6. Patent:
Name and date of patent are optional
Norman, L. O. (1998) Lightning rods. US Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998
7. Dissertation:
Trent, J.W. (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
8. Published and In press articles with or without DOI:
8.1 In press
Wilson, M., et al. (2006). References. In: Wilson, Mm (ed) Style manual. Springer. (Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer) (in press)
8.2. Article by DOI (with page numbers)
Slifka, M. K.& Whitton, J. L. (2000). Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78,74–80. DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
8.3. Article by DOI (before issue publication with page numbers)
Slifka, M. K. & Whitton, J, L, (2000), Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine (in press). DOI 10.1007/s001090000086
8.4. Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
Slifka, M. K.& Whitton, J. L. (2000). Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine. DOI 10.1007/s801090000086
9. Internet publication/Online document
9.1. Internet articles based on a print source
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
9.2. Article in an Internet-only journal
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
9.3. Article in an Internet-only newsletter
Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy -- Project update. Telehealth News,2(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html1
9.4. Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/.
9.5. Document available on university program or department Web site
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.htmlOther Electronic Sources
9.6. Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database

Proofs 

Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e−mail.
Your response, with or without corrections, should be sent within 72 hours.

Offprints 

Twenty−five offprints of each article will be provided free of charge. Additional offprints (both hard copies and PDF files) can be ordered by means of an offprint order form supplied with the proofs.

Page Charges and Colour Figures 

No page charges are levied on authors or their institutions. Colour figures are published at the author's expense only.

Copyright 

Authors will be asked, upon acceptance of an article, to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher. This will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information under copyright laws.

Permissions 

It is the responsibility of the author to obtain written permission for a quotation from unpublished material, or for all quotations in excess of 250 words in one extract or 500 words in total from any work still in copyright, and for the reprinting of figures, tables or poems from unpublished or copyrighted material.

Springer Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription−based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springers online platform SpringerLink. To publish via Springer Open Choice, upon acceptance please click on the link below to complete the relevant order form and provide the required payment information. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription−model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.

English Language Editing 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts. Springer authors are entitled to a 10% discount on their first submission to either of these services, simply follow the links below.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.

.

为便于编辑和评审专家准确评估您稿件中陈述的研究工作,您需要确保您的英语语言质量足以令人理解。如果您需要英文写作方面的帮助,您可以考虑:
● 请一位以英语为母语的同事审核您的稿件是否表意清晰。
● 查看一些有关英语写作中常见语言错误的教程。
● 使用专业语言编辑服务,编辑人员会对英语进行润色,以确保您的意思表达清晰,并识别需要您复核的问题。我们的附属机构 Nature Research Editing Service 和合作伙伴 American Journal Experts 即可提供此类服务。
请注意,使用语言编辑服务并非在期刊上发表文章的必要条件,同时也并不意味或保证文章将被选中进行同行评议或被接受。
如果您的稿件被接受,在发表之前,我们的文字编辑会检查您的文稿拼写是否规范以及文体是否正式。

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エディターと査読者があなたの論文を正しく評価するには、使用されている英語の質が十分に高いことが必要とされます。英語での論文執筆に際してサポートが必要な場合には、次のオプションがあります:
・英語を母国語とする同僚に、原稿で使用されている英語が明確であるかをチェックしてもらう。
・英語で執筆する際のよくある間違いに関する英語のチュートリアルを参照する。
・プロの英文校正サービスを利用する。校正者が原稿の意味を明確にしたり、問題点を指摘し、英語の質を向上させます。Nature Research Editing Service とAmerican Journal Experts の2つは弊社と提携しているサービスです。Springer の著者は、いずれのサービスも初めて利用する際には10%の割引を受けることができます。以下のリンクを参照ください。
英文校正サービスの利用は、投稿先のジャーナルに掲載されるための条件ではないこと、また論文審査や受理を保証するものではないことに留意してください。
原稿が受理されると、出版前に弊社のコピーエディターがスペルと体裁のチェックを行います。

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영어 원고의 경우, 에디터 및 리뷰어들이 귀하의 원고에 실린 결과물을 정확하게 평가할 수 있도록, 그들이 충분히 이해할 수 있을 만한 수준으로 작성되어야 합니다. 만약 영작문과 관련하여 도움을 받기를 원하신다면 다음의 사항들을 고려하여 주십시오:
• 귀하의 원고의 표현을 명확히 해줄 영어 원어민 동료를 찾아서 리뷰를 의뢰합니다.
• 영어 튜토리얼 페이지에 방문하여 영어로 글을 쓸 때 자주하는 실수들을 확인합니다.
• 리뷰에 대비하여, 원고의 의미를 명확하게 해주고 리뷰에서 요구하는 문제점들을 식별해서 영문 수준을 향상시켜주는 전문 영문 교정 서비스를 이용합니다. Nature Research Editing Service와 American Journal Experts에서 저희와 협약을 통해 서비스를 제공하고 있습니다. Springer 저자들이 본 교정 서비스를 첫 논문 투고를 위해 사용하시는 경우 10%의 할인이 적용되며, 아래의 링크를 통하여 확인이 가능합니다.
영문 교정 서비스는 게재를 위한 요구사항은 아니며, 해당 서비스의 이용이 피어 리뷰에 논문이 선택되거나 게재가 수락되는 것을 의미하거나 보장하지 않습니다.
원고가 수락될 경우, 출판 전 저희측 편집자에 의해 원고의 철자 및 문체를 검수하는 과정을 거치게 됩니다.

Additional Information 

Additional information can be obtained from:
Advances in Health Sciences Education
Publishing Editor
Springer
P.O. Box 17
3300 AA Dordrecht
The Netherlands
Phone: +31 (0)78 6576208
Fax: +31 (0)78 6576254
Web site:

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. (Please note that each author should complete a disclosure form.) Examples of forms can be found
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: Author A, Author B, and Author C declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

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  • Journal Citation Reports®
    2016 Impact Factor
  • 1.852
  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope

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    Advances in Health Sciences Education is a forum for scholarly and state-of-the art research into all aspects of health sciences education. It will publish empirical studies as well as discussions of theoretical issues and practical implications. The primary focus of the Journal is linking theory to practice, thus priority will be given to papers that have a sound theoretical basis and strong methodology.

    The Journal will accept articles on topics such as admissions, problem-based and self-directed learning, faculty development, achievement testing, motivation, curriculum development, curricular comparisons, program evaluation, expertise development, clinical reasoning, continuing education, community-based education, and communication skills (the list is intended as illustrative, not exhaustive). All rigorous methodologies, both quantitative and qualitative, are encouraged. It is aimed at all those committed to the improvement of health professions education: researchers and educators in the fields of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, nutrition and related disciplines.

    From the perspective of external validity, it is critical that authors place their study in a theoretical and empirical context. AHSE has no page limit, in order that each paper can be accompanied by a critical review of related research, and the discussion can highlight how the study findings add to knowledge. Authors are encouraged to explore their study from multiple analytical perspectives, to include multiple converging studies if possible, and to specifically state how the study findings add to knowledge in the field.

     

    The editors will not consider studies where the only outcome is a person's opinion or perception of the extent to which they believe they have learned something or improved their skills. The reason is simply that the evidence is consistent that people are not capable of accurate self-assessment, so any form of self-assessed improvement cannot be used as an outcome.  Self-assessed measures of confidence or competence may well appear to show large differences in response to an educational intervention, but are themselves weak surrogates for actual achievement.

     

    From the perspective of educational importance, studies of a single course or program with weak evidence of effectiveness, such as student ratings, are discouraged as they are unlikely to add to generalizable knowledge, unless the study permits empirical test of theoretical predictions. Further, evaluations of any technology, without consideration of the mechanisms that lead to an observed change, are of limited value. Similarly, proving that some education is better than no education, an educational “placebo-controlled trial;” has very limited value. We will not consider such studies for publication.

    An important criterion for acceptance is educational significance. Studies may be methodologically strong, and effects may be statistically significant, but that does not equate to importance. From the perspective of internal validity, small effects and associations, as are typically observed in studies of personality or learning style, may well achieve statistical significance with large samples but have little educational importance. Similarly, self-assessed measures of confidence or competence may well appear to show large differences in response to an educational intervention, but are themselves weak surrogates for actual achievement.

    It is hoped that the absence of a word limit will encourage authors to consider full exploration of a question, including multiple converging studies in the same paper. The Journal strongly discourages multiple publications derived from a single study, unless the questions asked are distinct and non-overlapping.  As a matter of policy, authors are required to fully disclose other related publications, either published, submitted or under review. We will not consider submissions where aspects of the study have already been published elsewhere, unless the author makes a convincing case for the distinctiveness of the new submission.

    "Reflections"
    The Reflections section encourages submissions of various formats. Critical reviews of important developments in the field will be particularly encouraged, since advances in a field can only result from a deep understanding of what has already been accomplished. In addition, the editors encourage submission of new ideas or philosophical musings on health sciences education: papers that are not necessarily empirical in nature.

    Manuscripts for Reflections and Reviews must appeal to all readers, regardless of their home health profession (medicine, pharmacy, etc.), educational level of interest (e.g. med student, continuing education) or research discipline (qualitative, experimental, etc.). Only very high quality papers of wide interest will be accepted in the Reflections and Reviews sections. Authors should know that the likelihood of acceptance is quite low.

    "Methodologist’s Corner", "From the Archives", and "If I Had Known Then" are special invited submissions which will appear from time to time. Editors of these sections are identified in the journal description and can be approached for potential topics.

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