Foreword. Preface. I: Program Evaluation: An Introduction. 1. Program Evaluation: An Historical Overview; G.F. Madaus, D.L. Stufflebeam. 2. Models, Metaphors, and Definitions of Evaluation; G.F. Madaus, T. Kellaghan. 3. Foundational Models for 21st Century Program Evaluation; D.L. Stufflebeam. II: Questions/Methods-Oriented Models. 4. A Rationale for Program Evaluation; R.W. Tyler. 5. Outcome Evaluation; T. Kellaghan, G.F. Madaus. 6. The Role of Testing in Evaluations; G.F. Madaus, et al. 7. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model; A. Steinmetz. 8. The Role of Field Trials in Evaluating School Practices: A Rare Design; B. Nave, et al. 9. Cost Analysis for Improved Educational Policymaking and Evaluation; M.C. Tsang. 10. The Clarification Hearing: A Personal View of the Process; G.F. Madaus. 11. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress; R.K. Yin. 12. Educational Criticism as a Form of Qualitative Enquiry; D.J. Flinders, E.W. Eisner. 13. Program Theory: Not Whether Programs Work, But How They Work; P.J. Rogers. III: Improvement/Accountability-Oriented Evaluation. 14. Course Improvement Through Evaluation; L.J. Cronbach. 15. Evaluation Ideologies; M. Scriven. 16. The CIPP Model for Evaluation; D.L. Stufflebeam. 17. Accountability: Implications for State and Local Policymakers; M.W. Kirst. IV: Social Agenda-Directed (Advocacy) Models. 18. Program Evaluation, Particularly Responsive Evaluation; R.E. Stake. 19. Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry; E.G. Guba, Y.S. Lincoln. 20. Developing Discourses on Evaluation; H.S. Bhola. 21. Steps of Empowerment Evaluation: From California to Cape Town; D.M. Fetterman. 22. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Practice; E.R. House, K.R. Howe. V: Overarching Matters. 23. Utilization-Focused Evaluation; M.Q. Patton. 24. Professional Standards and Principles for Evaluation; D.L. Stufflebeam. 25. The Methodology of Metaevaluation; D.L. Stufflebeam. References.