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Economics - International Economics / European Integration | Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia - Policy, Impact, Determinants and Challenges

Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia

Policy, Impact, Determinants and Challenges

Sahoo, Pravakar, Nataraj, Geethanjali, Dash, Ranjan Kumar

2014, XXVI, 357 p. 30 illus., 26 illus. in color.

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  • Offers an in-depth and systematic analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI) policies and flows by country and for South Asia as a whole
  • Critically examines the determinants of FDI inflows and impact of FDI at both aggregate and disaggregate levels
  •  Presents a comprehensive analysis on future reforms and challenges of attracting more FDI
During the 1990s, the governments of South Asian countries acted as ‘facilitators’ to attract FDI. As a result, the inflow of FDI increased. However, to become an attractive FDI destination as China, Singapore, or Brazil, South Asia has to improve the local conditions of doing business. This book, based on research that blends theory, empirical evidence, and policy, asks and attempts to answer a few core questions relevant to FDI policy in South Asian countries: Which major reforms have succeeded? What are the factors that influence FDI inflows? What has been the impact of FDI on macroeconomic performance? Which policy priorities/reforms needed to boost FDI are pending? These questions and answers should interest policy makers, academics, and all those interested in FDI in the South Asian region and in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Economic Growth - Economic Reforms - FDI Inflow - Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - South Asia

Related subjects » Economic Growth - Economic Policy - Finance & Banking - Financial Economics - International Economics / European Integration

Table of contents 



1.      Overview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

2.     South Asia: A Macro Overview                                                                     

2.1 Introduction


2.2 Economic Reforms in South Asia: Country-wise Analysis

       2.2.1   Reforms and Developments in India: A brief review

       2.2.2   Economic reforms in Bangladesh: A Brief review

       2.2.3   Economic reforms in Pakistan: a brief review

       2.2.4   Economic Reforms in Sri Lanka: A brief review

       2.2.5   Reforms in Nepal: A Review              


2.3   Macroeconomic Performance of South Asia Countries

2.3.1          Macroeconomic Performances of India

2.3.2         Macroeconomic Performance of Pakistan

2.3.3         Macroeconomic Performances of Bangladesh

2.3.4         Macroeconomic Performances of Sri Lanka

2.3.5         Macroeconomic Performances of Nepal


2.4 Concluding Remarks


3.     Foreign Direct Investment Policy in South Asia                                   


3.1   Introduction


3.2   FDI Policy Framework in India

         3.2.1    Evolution of FDI Policy in India

         3.2.2    State-level Reforms: Success Stories

         3.2.3    Major Institutional Reforms to Promote FDI

         3.2.4    Foreign Investment Policy and Routes for Investment Inflows

         3.2.5    Taxation Policy in India

         3.2.6     Repatriation of Investment Capital and Profits Earned in India

         3.2.7     Labour and Employment Laws

         3.2.8     Policy Regarding Intellectual Property Rights

         3.2.9     Policy Regarding Acquisition of Immovable Property

        3.2.10     Incentives for Foreign Investment

        3.2.11    Restrictions on FDI and Rationale


3.3   FDI Policy in Bangladesh

3.3.1     Evolution of FDI Policy in Bangladesh

3.3.2    Institutions in Bangladesh

3.3.3    Intellectual property rights and investment protection

3.3.4    Labour laws

3.3.5    Investment Incentives in Bangladesh


3.4   FDI Policy in Pakistan

3.4.1    Evolution of FDI policy and FDI policy framework in Pakistan

3.4.2   FDI Policy Framework

3.4.3   Investment Policy for FDI in Different Sectors

3.4.4   Taxation Policy and Investment Incentives in Pakistan

3.4.5   Repatriation of Investment Capital and Profits Earned in Pakistan    and Expatriate Facilitation


3.5   FDI Policy in Sri Lanka

3.5.1   Evolution of FDI policy in Sri Lanka

3.5.2   Policy framework and Institutions in Sri Lanka

3.5.3   FDI institution

3.5.4   Treatment and protection of FDI, repatriation of profits and     intellectual property law Treatment and protection of FDI, repatriation of profits and intellectual property law

3.5.5   Labour Laws and Regulations

3.5.6   Investment Incentives in Sri Lanka    

3.5.7   Taxation Policy in Sri Lanka

3.5.8  Pending FDI Reforms


            3.6 FDI Policy in Nepal

                   3.6.1 Evolution of FDI policy in Nepal

                   3.6.2 Policy Framework, Incentives and Licensing in Nepal

                   3.6.3 Intellectual Property Protection

                   3.6.4 Foreign Investment Incentives and Facilities in Nepal          


           3.7   Conclusion    


4.     Foreign Direct Investment Inflows into South Asia FGD                        

4.1   Introduction


4.2   Global FDI and FDI Inflows into South Asia

      4.2.1.   South-South FDI Flows


4.3 FDI Inflows to South Asian Countries

      4.3.1. FDI Performance and Potential

      4.3.2. Component-wise FDI inflows to South Asia (in million $)


4.4. Country-wise FDI Inflows to South Asia: Composition, Pattern, and Distribution

       4.4.1. India

       4.4.2. Pakistan

       4.4.3. Sri Lanka

       4.4.4. Bangladesh

       4.4.5. Nepal      


4.5. Intra-Regional Trade and FDI in South Asia

       4.5.1. Indian Investment in Pakistan

       4.5.2. Indian Investment in Bangladesh

       4.5.3. Indian investment in Sri Lanka

       4.5.4. India-Nepal      


4.6. Global and South Asia FDI Outflows

       4.6.1. FDI Outflows from South Asia

       4.6.2. FDI Outflows from India and Its Reasons

       4.6.3. FDI Outflows from Bangladesh

       4.6.4. FDI Outflows from Pakistan

       4.6.5. FDI Outflows Sri Lanka

       4.6.6. FDI Outflows from Nepal      


4.7 Summary and Conclusion



5.     FDI in China: A comparative Perspective with India              

5.1. Introduction

       5.2.  Macroeconomic Picture of China and India

        5.3.  A Comparative outlook of the trends in FDI flows

       5.4   FDI Accounting In China & India

5.5    Evolution of FDI Policy in China

5.6.   Political Economy of FDI Policy: Autocracy vs. Democracy

5.7.  Major reasons for discrepancy between FDI performances in China and   South Asia

5.8. Policy Lessons for South Asia from China’s FDI success


6.     Determinants of FDI in South Asia                                                           

6.1.  Introduction

  6.2.  Theories of FDI

  6.3.   Brief Literature Review  

  6.4.   Potential Determinants of FDI

  6.5.  Data Sources, Model Specification and Methodology

               6.5.1. Times Series Analysis ADF Unit Root Test: ARDL Co-integration:

 6.5.2. Panel data Analysis Panel Unit Root Test: Panel Co-integration Test Generalised Method of Moment

6.6. Determinants of FDI: The Case of China

6.7. Summary


7.    FDI and Economic Growth in South Asia                                                

7.1 Introduction


7.2 Theoretical Framework

     7.2.1. Direct Impact

     7.2.2. Indirect Impact


7.3      FDI and Growth: Empirical Evidence

7.4      Conditions for Positive Impact of FDI on Growth


7.5             Data Source, Methodology, and Model Specification

               7.5.1. Model Specification


7.6     Empirical Results

7.6.1. Time Series Analysis of Impact of FDI on Growth

               7.6.2. Panel Data Analysis

               7.6.3. FDI and Absorptive Capacity


7.7.   Impact of FDI on China’s Growth: A Comparative Analysis

               7.7.1 Brief Review of Literature for China

               7.7.2 Empirical Results


7.8. Causality between FDI and real Per capita Income

                7.8.1 Granger Causality: The vector error correction (VECM) procedure

               7.8.2 Panel Causality Test 


7.9. Summary and Conclusion



8.    Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Domestic Investment in South Asia: Time series and Panel Evidence                                     

8.1    Introduction


8.2    Empirical Literature


8.3   Model Specification and Data Sources


8.4   Analysis of Empirical Results

     8.4.1. Times series Analysis

     8.4.2   Panel Analysis


8.5 Impact of FDI on DI in China: A Comparative Analysis

     8.5.1. Causality between DI and FDI Using VECM Approach


8.6. Conclusion


9.     Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on domestic Exports:   Time series and Panel Evidence from South Asia                                

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Export Performances of South Asian countries                                   

9.3 Theoretical Background

9.4 Review of Empirical Literature

9.5. Model Specification


9.6. Data Sources and Methodology

      9.6.1. Analysis of Empirical Results: Times Series Analysis

      9.6.2. Panel Data Analysis

      9.6.3. Causality between Exports and FDI   


9.7. FDI and exports in China

      9.7.1 Empirical Results


9.8. Conclusion


10.                     FDI Reforms in South Asia: Unfinished Agenda, Future Reforms and Challenges                                                                     


10.1 Introduction  

10.2 Foreign Direct Investment in India — Unfinished Agenda

      10.2.1.   Labour rules and regulations:

      10.2.2.   Infrastructure development: a major obstacle to FDI

      10.2.3.   Special Economic Zones: objectives and issues

      10.2.4.   Land Acquisition

      10.2.5.   Environmental clearances

      10.2.6.   Trade reforms and FDI inflows

      10.2.7.   The Unfinished Agenda and Way forward



10.3 FDI in Pakistan: Unfinished Agenda And Challenges

      10.3.1. Difficulties and challenges for FDI

      10.3.2. Land Acquisition in Pakistan

      10.3.3. Pending Reforms and Way Forward


10.4 FDI in Bangladesh: Unfinished Agenda And Challenges

     10.4.1. Difficulties and Limitations

     10.4.2. Unfinished Agenda and the Way forward


 10.5 FDI in Srilanka: Unfinished Agenda And Challenges


     10.5.1. Difficulties and Limitations

     10.5.2. Land Acquisition

     10.5.3. Labour Regulations and Higher Wages

     10.5.4. Taxation

     10.5.5. Unfinished Agenga and Way forward


 10.6. FDI in Nepal: Unfinished Agenda And Challenges

     10.6.1. Land Acquisition in Nepal

      Criteria for the estimation of Compensation 

     10.6.2. Taxation

     10.6.3. Foreign Exchange Regulation

     10.6.4. Labour Law

     10.6.5. Unfinished Agenda and Way Forward

10.7. Conclusion: FDI in South Asia: The Way Forward





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