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Earth Sciences & Geography - Geophysics & Geodesy | Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

Gubbins, David, Herrero-Bervera, Emilio (Eds.)

2007, XXVI, 1054 p.

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  • -More than 300 entries by some 200 of the foremost experts from all over the world
  • -Up-to-date and comprehensive. The first single encyclopedia to cover the combined fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism
  • -Individual entries range in length from 500 to 12000 words
  • -Draws together a unique overview of world wide geomagnetic observatories
  • -Includes numerous illustrations and a 16 page full color section
  • -Excellent indices, cross-references and extensive bibliographies

Understanding the process underlying the origin of Earth magnetic field is one of the greatest challenges left to classical Physics. Geomagnetism, being the oldest Earth science, studies the Earth’s magnetic field in its broadest sense.

The magnetic record left in rocks is studied in Paleomagnetism. Both fields have applications, pure and applied: in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth.

Consisting of more than 300 articles written by ca 200 leading experts, this authoritative reference encompasses the entire fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. It describes in fine detail at an assessable level the state of the current knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. As such, it will be an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.

The Editors

David Gubbins is Research Professor of Earth Sciences in the School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds, UK. He did his PhD on geomagnetic dynamos in Cambridge, supervised by Sir Edward Bullard (q.v.) and has worked in the USA and in Cambridge before moving to Leeds in 1989. His work has included dynamo theory and its connection with the Earth's thermal history, modeling the Earth's magnetic field from historical measurements, and recently the interpretation of paleomagnetic data.  He is a Fellow of the Royal Society and has been awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society and the John Adam Fleming (q.v.) Medal of the American Geophysical Union for original research and leadership in geomagnetism.

Emilio Herrero-Bervera is Research Professor of Geophysics at the School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) within the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where he is the head of the Paleomagnetics and Petrofabrics Laboratory. During his career he has published over 90 papers in professional journals including Nature, JGR, EPSL, and JVGR. He has worked in such diverse fields as volcanology, sedimentology, and plate tectonics and has done fieldwork on 5 continents.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Biomagnetism - Dynamo Theory - Electromagnetic Induction - Environmental magnetics - Geomagnetism - KLTcatalog - MRWCat2006 - Paleomagnetism - Rock magnetism

Related subjects » Earth Sciences & Geography - Geology - Geophysics & Geodesy - Physical & Information Science

Table of contents 

Aeromagnetic surveying

Agricola, Georgius (1494–1555)

Alfvén waves

Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (1908–1995)

Alfvén's theorem and the frozen flux approximation

Anelastic and Boussinesq approximations

Anisotropy, electrical

Anti-dynamo and bounding theorems

Archaeology, magnetic methods


Auroral oval

Baked contact test

Bangui anomaly

Barlow, Peter (1776–1862)

Bartels, Julius (1899–1964)

Bauer, Louis Agricola (1865–1932)

Bemmelen, Willem van (1868–1941)

Benton, Edward R. (1934–1992)

Bingham statistics


Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart, Baron of Chelsea (1897–1974)

Bullard, Edward Crisp (1907–1980)

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism

Carnegie, research vessel


Chapman, Sydney (1888–1970)

Coast effect of induced currents


Conductivity geothermometer

Conductivity, ocean floor measurements

Convection, chemical

Convection, non-magnetic rotating

Core composition

Core convection

Core density

Core motions

Core origin

Core properties, physical

Core properties, theoretical determination

Core temperature

Core turbulence

Core viscosity

Core, adiabatic gradient

Core, boundary layers

Core, electrical conductivity

Core, magnetic instabilities

Core, thermal conduction

Core-based inversions for the main geomagnetic field

Core-mantle boundary topography, implications for dynamics

Core-mantle boundary topography, seismology

Core-mantle boundary, heat flow across

Core-mantle coupling, electromagnetic

Core-mantle coupling, thermal

Core-mantle coupling, topographic

Cowling, Thomas George (1906–1990)

Cowling's Theorem

Cox, Allan V. (1926–1987)

Crustal magnetic field

D'' and F Layers of the Earth

D'' as a boundary layer

D'', anisotropy

D'', composition

D'', seismic properties

Della Porta, Giambattista (1535–1615)


Depth to Curie temperature

Dipole moment variation

Dynamo waves

Dynamo, Backus

Dynamo, Braginsky

Dynamo, Bullard-Gellman

Dynamo, disk

Dynamo, Gailitis

Dynamo, Herzenberg

Dynamo, Lowes-Wilkinson

Dynamo, Model-Z

Dynamo, Ponomarenko

Dynamo, solar

Dynamos, experimental

Dynamos, fast

Dynamos, kinematic

Dynamos, mean field

Dynamos, periodic

Dynamos, planetary and satellite

Earth structure, major divisions

Elsasser, Walter M. (?–1991)

EM modeling, forward

EM modeling, inverse

EM, industrial uses

EM, lake bottom measurements

EM, land uses

EM, regional studies

EM, tectonic interpretations

Environmental magnetism

Environmental magnetism, paleomagnetic applications

Equilibration of magnetic field, weak and strong field dynamos

Euler deconvolution

First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams

Fisher statistics

Fleming, John Adam (1877–1855)

Fluid dynamics experiments

Galvanic distortion

Gauss' determination of absolute intensity

Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1777–1855)

Gellibrand, Henry (1597–1636)

Geocentric axial dipole hypothesis


Geodynamo, dimensional analysis and timescales

Geodynamo, energy sources

Geodynamo, numerical simulations

Geodynamo, symmetry properties

Geomagnetic deep sounding

Geomagnetic dipole field

Geomagnetic excursion

Geomagnetic field, asymmetries

Geomagnetic hazards

Geomagnetic jerks

Geomagnetic polarity reversals

Geomagnetic polarity reversals, observations

Geomagnetic polarity timescales

Geomagnetic pulsations

Geomagnetic reversal sequence, statistical structure

Geomagnetic reversals, archives

Geomagnetic secular variation

Geomagnetic spectrum, spatial

Geomagnetic spectrum, temporal

Geomagnetism, history of

Gilbert William (1544–1603)

Gravitational torque

Gravity-inertio waves and inertial oscillations

Grüneisen's parameter for iron and Earth's core

Halley, Edmond (1656–1742)

Hansteen, Christopher (1784–1873)

Harmonics, spherical

Harmonics, spherical cap

Hartmann, Georg (1489–1564)


Higgins-Kennedy paradox

Humboldt, Alexander von (1759–1859)

Humboldt, Alexander von and magnetic storms

IAGA, International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy

Ideal solution theory

IGRF, International Geomagnetic Reference Field

Induction arrows

Induction from satellite data

Inhomogeneous boundary conditions and the dynamo

Inner core anisotropy

Inner core composition

Inner core oscillation

Inner core rotation

Inner core rotational dynamics

Inner core seismic velocities

Inner core tangent cylinder

Inner core, PKJKP

Instrumentation, history of

Interiors of planets and satellites

Internal external field separation


Iron sulphides

Jesuits, role in geomagnetism

Kircher, Athanasius (1602–1680)

Langel, Robert A. (1937–2000)

Laplace's equation, uniqueness of solutions

Larmor, Joseph (1857–1942)

Lehmann, Inge (1888–1993)

Length of day variations, decadal

Length of day variations, long term

Lloyd, Humphrey (1808–1881)

Magnetic anisotropy, sedimentary rocks and strain alteration

Magnetic anomalies for geology and resources

Magnetic anomalies, long wavelength

Magnetic anomalies, marine

Magnetic anomalies, modeling

Magnetic domain

Magnetic field of Mars

Magnetic field of Sun

Magnetic indices

Magnetic mineralogy, changes due to heating

Magnetic properties, low-temperature

Magnetic proxy parameters

Magnetic remanence, anisotropy

Magnetic shielding

Magnetic surveys, marine

Magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy

Magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy, effects of heating

Magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy, rock fabric

Magnetic susceptibility, low-field

Magnetization, anhysteretic remanent (ARM)

Magnetization, chemical remanent (CRM)

Magnetization, depositional remanent (DRM)

Magnetization, isothermal remanent (IRM)

Magnetization, natural remanent (NRM)

Magnetization, oceanic crust

Magnetization, piezo-remanent

Magnetization, remanent, application

Magnetization, remanent, fold test

Magnetization, thermoremanent (TRM)

Magnetization, thermoremanent, in minerals

Magnetization, viscous remanent (VRM)


Magnetohydrodynamic waves


Magnetometers, laboratory

Magnetosphere of the Earth




Main field maps

Main field modelling

Main field, ellipticity correction

Mantle, electrical conductivity, mineralogy

Mantle, thermal conductivity

Marine controlled source EM

Matuyama, Motonori (1884–1958)

Melting temperature of iron in the core, experimental

Melting temperature of iron in the core, theory

Microwave palaeomagnetic technique

Nagata, Takesi (1913–1991)

Natural sources for EM induction studies

Neél, Louis (1904–2000)

Non-dipole field

Non-dynamo theories

Norman, Robert (1560–1585)

Observatories, overview

Observatories instrumentation

Observatories automation

Observatories, intermagnet

Observatories programme in Australia

Observatories programme in the British Isles

Observatories programme in France

Observatories programme in USA

Observatories in Antarctica

Observatories in Benelux countries

Observatories in Canada

Observatories in China

Observatories in East and Central Europe

Observatories in Germany

Observatories in India

Observatories in Italy

Observatories in Japan and Asia

Observatories in Latin America

Observatories in New Zealand and the South Pacific

Observatories in Nordic countries

Observatories in Russia

Observatories in southern Africa

Observatories in Spain

Ocean, electromagnetic effects

Oldham, Richard Dixon (1858–1936)

Ørsted, Hans Christian (1777–1851)

Oscillations, torsional

Paleointensity, absolute, determination

Paleointensity, absolute, techniques

Paleointensity, relative, in sediments

Paleomagnetic field collection methods

Paleomagnetic secular variation


Paleomagnetism, deep-sea sediments

Paleomagnetism, extraterrestrial

Paleomagnetism, orogenic belts

Parkinson, Wilfred Dudley (1919–2001)

Peregrinus, Petrus (c. 1220–?)

Periodic external fields

Plate tectonics, China

POGO (OGO-2, -4 and -6 spacecraft)

Polarity transition, paleomagnetic record

Polarity transitions

Pole, paleomagnetic

Potential vorticity and potential magnetic field theorems

Precession and core dynamics

Price, Albert Thomas (1903–1978)

Principal component analysis in paleomagnetism

Project MAGNET

Proudman-Taylor theorem

Radioactive isotopes, their decay in mantle and core

Reduction to pole

Repeat stations

Reversals, theory

Rikitake, Tsuneji (1921–?)

Ring current

Robust electromagnetic transfer functions estimates

Rock magnetism

Rock magnetism, hysteresis measurements

Rock magnetometer, superconducting

Runcorn, S. Keith (1922–1995)

Runcorn's theorem

Sabine, Edward (1788–1883)

Seamount magnetism

Secular variation model


Seismic phases

Seismo-electromagnetic effects

Shaw and microwave methods, absolute paleointensity determination

Shock wave experiments

Spinner magnetometer

Statistical methods for paleovector analysis

Storms and substorms, magnetic

Stress demagnetization

Superchrons, changes in reversal frequency


Susceptibility, measurements of solids

Susceptibility, parameters, anisotropy

Taylor's condition

Thellier, Émile (1904–1987)

Thermal wind

Time-averaged paleomagnetic field

Time-dependent models of the geomagnetic field

Transfer functions

Transient EM induction

True polar wander

ULVZ, ultra-low velocity zone


Upward and downward continuation

Variable field translation balance

Verhoogen, John (1912–1993)

Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis

Volcano-electromagnetic effects

Voyages making geomagnetic measurements

Watkins, Norman David (1934–1977)

Westward drift

Distribution rights 

Distribution rights for India: CBS Publishers, New Delhi, India

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