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Earth Sciences & Geography - Geology | Sedimentary Basins - Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget

Sedimentary Basins

Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget

Einsele, Gerhard

1992, X, 628p. 269 illus..

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The modern geological sciences are characterized by extraordinarily rapid progress, as well as by the development and application of numerous new and refined methods,most of them handling an enormous amount of data available from all the continents and oceans. Given this state of affairs, it seams inevitable that many students and professionals tend to become experts in relatively narrow fields and there­ by are in danger of losing a broad view of current knowledge. The abun­ dance of new books and symposium volumes testifies to this trend toward specialization. However, many geologic processes are complex and result from the interaction of many, seemingly unrelated, individual factors. This signifies that we still need generalists who have the broad overview and are able to evaluate the great variety of factors and processes controlling a geologic system, such as a sedimentary basin. In addition, this also means that cooperation with other disciplines in the natural sciences and engi­ neering is increasingly important. Modern text books providing this broad overview of the earth sciences are rare. Some are written by several authors together to make sure that all topics are treated properly. When individual authors write a book, they run the risk of creating a text that is less balanced, because they cannot avoid indulging their own preferences for specific topics and field examples. However, this disadvantage can be compensated for by the fact that just one author can produce a more concise and uniform text and include ap­ propriate cross references.

Content Level » Lower undergraduate

Keywords » Ocean - Sediment - geoscience - sedimentary basin

Related subjects » Environmental Science & Engineering - Fossil Fuels - Geology - Oceanography

Table of contents 

I Types of Sedimentary Basins.- 1 Basin Classification and Depositional Environments.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Tectonic Basin Classification.- 1.3 Pre-, Syn-, and Post-Depositional Basins.- 1.4 Basin Morphology and Depositional Environments.- II Depositional Systems and Fades Models.- 2 Continental Sediments.- 2.1 Glacial Deposits of Lowlands and Shallow Seas.- 2.1.1 Continental Glacial Deposits.- 2.1.2 Glaciomarine Sediments.- 2.2 Fluvial Sediments, Alluvial Fans, and Fan Deltas.- 2.2.1 Bed Forms, Sedimentary Structures, and Facies Elements.- 2.2.2 Alluvial Fans and Fan Deltas.- 2.2.3 Various River Systems and Their Sediments.- 2.2.4 Large-Scale Lateral and Vertical Evolution of Fluvial Systems.- 2.3 Eolian Sediments.- 2.3.1 Introduction.- 2.3.2 Eolian Sands.- 2.3.4 Clay Dunes.- 2.3.5 Eolian Dust, Loess.- 2.4 Volcaniclastic Sediments (Tephra Deposits).- 2.4.1 General Aspects and Terms.- 2.4.2 Tephra Deposits on Land and Below the Sea.- 2.4.3 Volcaniclastic Sediments in Basins of Various Tectonic Settings.- 2.4.4 Alteration, Diagenesis, and Metamorphism of Volcaniclastic Rocks.- 2.5 Lake Sediments.- 2.5.1 Different Lake Systems and Their Sediments.- 2.5.2 Recent and Ancient Examples of Lake Sediments.- 2.5.3 Specific Features of Lakes and Lake Sediments.- 3 Coastal and Shallow Sea Sediments (Including Carbonates).- 3.1 Beach and Shoreface Sediments.- 3.1.1 Coastal Processes, Beach and Shoreface Sands.- 3.1.2 Storms and Storm Deposits (Tempestites).- 3.2 Sediments of Tidal Flats and Barrier-Island Complexes.- 3.2.1 Tidal-Influenced Environments and Sediments.- 3.2.2 Sediments of Barrier-Island Complexes.- 3.3 Sediments of Shallow Seas (Including Carbonates).- 3.3.1 Predominantly Siliciclastic Sediments.- 3.3.2 Carbonate Buildups and Reef-Lagoon Complexes.- 3.4 Sediments of Marine Delta Complexes.- 3.4.1 Types of Marine Deltas.- 3.4.2 Sedimentary Processes and Facies of Various Delta Types.- 3.4.3 Facies Architecture, Constructional and Destructional Phases.- 4 Sediments of Adjacent Seas and Estuaries.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Water Circulation and Sediments.- 4.3 Sedimentary History of Some Modern Adjacent Seas.- 5 Oceanic Sediments.- 5.1 General Aspects.- 5.2 Water Circulation in the Oceans.- 5.3 Hemipelagic and Pelagic Deep-Sea Sediments.- 5.3.1 Overview.- 5.3.2 Deep-Sea Carbonates and Carbonate Dissolution.- 5.3.3 Red Clay and Manganese Nodules.- 5.3.4 Sediments in Zones of Upwelling.- 5.3.5 Siliceous Sediments.- 5.3.6 Marine Phosphorite Deposits.- 5.3.7 Sediments on Marginal and Oceanic Plateaus, Ridges, and Seamounts.- 5.4 Gravity Mass Flow Deposits and Turbidites.- 5.4.1 Gravity Mass Flows.- 5.4.2 Turbidites and Deep-Sea Fan Associations.- 5.5 Erosion and Reworking of Deep-Sea Sediments.- 6 Special Depositional Environments and Sediments.- 6.1 Green Marine Clays.- 6.2 Oolitic Ironstones.- 6.3 Red Beds.- 6.4 Marine Evaporites.- 6.4.1 Models for Evaporite Deposition.- 6.4.2 Sequences, Sedimentary Structures, and Sedimentation Rates.- 6.4.3 Diagenesis and Geochemical Characteristics of Evaporites.- 6.4.4 Salt Structures.- 6.5 Nonactualistic (Precambrian) Depositional Environments.- 6.5.1 The Evolution of the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Climate.- 6.5.2 Precambrian Sediments.- 7 Depositional Rhythms and Cyclic Sequences.- 7.1 General Aspects.- 7.2 Special Features and Examples of Rhythmic Bedding.- 7.3 Depositional Cycles in Lakes, Fluvial and Deltaic Systems.- 7.3.1 Cyclic Sequences in Lakes.- 7.3.2 Sediment Successions in Fluvial and Deltaic Systems.- 7.4 Sea Level Changes and Sequence Stratigraphy.- 7.4.1 General Principles and Terms.- 7.4.2 Changes in Sea Level and Storm Wave Base in Shallow Basins.- 7.4.3 Sequence Stratigraphy in Continental Margin Settings.- 7.5 Long-Term Cyclic Phenomena in Earth’s History.- 7.6 Superposition of Cycles of Various Orders and Differing Origin.- III Subsidence, Denudation, Flux Rates, and Sediment Budget.- 8 Subsidence.- 8.1 General Mechanisms Controlling Subsidence.- 8.2 Methods to Determine Subsidence of Sedimentary Basins.- 8.3 Modeling of Rift Basins and Observed Subsidence Curves.- 8.4 Passive Continental Margins.- 8.5 Subsidence of Basins Related to Tectonic Loading, Subduction, and Strike-Slip Motion.- 9 Denudation: Solute Transport and Flux Rates of Terrigenous Material.- 9.1 Weathering and Soils.- 9.2 Chemical and Mechanical Denudation Rates from River Loads.- 9.2.1 Chemical Denudation Rates.- 9.2.2 Mechanical Denudation from Solid River Load.- 9.2.3 Chemical Versus Mechanical Denudation Rates.- 9.3 Mineralogical Composition of Suspended River Loads.- 9.4 Long-Term Denudation Rates from the Sediment Budget of Various Basins.- 9.5 Tectonic Uplift, Denudation, and Geomorphology.- 9.5.1 Long-Term Denudation Rates from Changes in Topography.- 9.5.2 Geomorphological Consequences of Denudation.- 9.5.3 Interrelationship Between Tectonic Uplift and Denudation.- 10 Sedimentation Rates and Organic Matter in Various Depositional Environments.- 10.1 General Aspects.- 10.2 Average Sedimentation Rates.- 10.3 Production and Preservation of Organic Matter.- 10.3.1 General Aspects.- 10.3.2 Organic Matter in the Oceans.- 10.3.3 Organic Matter Preservation and Black Shales.- 11 The Interplay Between Sediment Supply, Subsidence, and Basin Fill.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Simple Relationships Between Source Area on Land and Basin Fill.- 11.3 Different Modes of Basin Filling.- 11.4 Vertical and Lateral Facies Associations (Overview).- IV Basin Evolution.- 12 Basin Evolution and Sediments.- 12.1 Rift Basins.- 12.1.1 Rift Structures.- 12.1.2 Examples of Young Rift Zones.- 12.1.3 Sediments of Rift Basins.- 12.1.4 Transition from Rift Basins to Continental Margin Basins.- 12.2 Continental Margin and Slope Basins.- 12.2.1 General Aspects.- 12.2.2 Sediment Successions of Continental Margin Basins.- 12.2.3 Sediment Successions on Continental Slopes.- 12.3 Intracratonic Basins Associated with Mega-Rifting.- 12.3.1 Permian to Mesozoic Basin Development in Europe (Overview).- 12.3.2 Mesozoic Sediments Between the North Sea and the Western Tethys.- 12.4 Continental or Intracratonic Sag Basins.- 12.5 Deep-see Trenches, Forearc and Backarc Basins.- 12.5.1 General Features.- 12.5.2 Deep-Sea Trenches.- 12.5.3 Forearc Basins.- 12.5.4 Backarc Basins.- 12.5.5 Preservation and Recognition of Ancient Subduction-Related Basins.- 12.6 Remnant and Foreland Basins.- 12.6.1 Remnant Basins with Flysch.- 12.6.2 Foreland Basins with Molasse.- 12.7 Pannonian-Type Basins.- 12.8 Pull-Apart Basins.- 12.9 Basin-Type Transitions (Polyhistory Basins).- V Diagenesis and Fluid Flow.- 13 Mechanical and Chemical Diagenesis.- 13.1 General Aspects of Mechanical and Chemical Diagenesis.- 13.2 Compaction, Compaction Flow, and Other Flow Mechanisms.- 13.3 Principles of Chemical Diagenesis.- 13.4 Thermal History of Sedimentary Basins and the Onset of Metamorphism.- 13.5 Special Methods and Processes in Diagenesis.- 14 Hydrocarbons and Coal.- 14.1 Source Rocks, Kerogen Types, and Hydrocarbon Potential.- 14.2 Generation of Hydrocarbons.- 14.3 Examples of Hydrocarbon Habitats.- 14.4 Evolution of Coal.- References.

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