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Earth Sciences & Geography - Geology | Advanced Mineralogy - Volume 3: Mineral Matter in Space, Mantle, Ocean Floor, Biosphere, Environmental

Advanced Mineralogy

Volume 3: Mineral Matter in Space, Mantle, Ocean Floor, Biosphere, Environmental Management, and Jewelry

Marfunin, Arnold S. (Ed.)

1998, XVIII, 444 p.

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  • About this book

This volume of Advanced Mineralogy encompasses six different areas having two features in common: they are related to one of the largest enterprises of the second half of this century; and represent the ultimate and final extension of the concept of mineral matter. - Understanding mineral matter in Space is one of the principal purposes of cosmic exploration. This includes the results of compa­ rative planetology, lunar epopee, sophisticated meteorite studies (now more than 500 meteorite minerals), discovery of the interstellar mineral dust forming some 60 trillion of earth masses in the Galaxy, and terrestrial impact crater studies. It is possible now to speak of mineralogy of the Universum, and the mineralogical type of the states of matter in the Universe. Direct samples of mantle xenoliths and ultrahigh pressure-tem­ perature experiments make it possible to consider the mineral­ ogical composition of the Earth as a whole, including the upper an lower mantle and the Earth's core. Deep ocean drilling programs, a scientific fleet of hundreds of vessels and several submersibles have brought about great dis­ coveries in the geology, metalogeny, and mineralogy of the ocean floor the largest part of the Earth's surface, in particular revealing new genetic, crystallochemical, and ore types of min­ eral formation.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Edelsteinkunde - Hydrothermale Mineralisation - Interstellarer Staub - Meteoriten - Umweltmineralogie - environmental mineralogy - gemology - geochemistry - hydrothermal mineralisation - interstellar dust - meteorites - mineralogy

Related subjects » Geochemistry - Geology - Geophysics & Geodesy - Materials - Physical Chemistry

Table of contents 

1 Mineral Matter in Space.- 1.1 Types of the States of Matter in the Universe.- 1.2 Interstellar Dust.- Interactions with Starlight.- Abundance Constraints.- Spectral Absorption Features.- Sizes and Shapes of Dust Grains.- 1.3 Interstellar Diamond.- 1.4 Interplanetary Dust.- Chondritic Dusts.- IDP Alteration.- The Original Dusts.- Future Research.- 1.5 Cosmogenic Matter in Terrestrial Environments.- The Nature of Interplanetary Dust.- 1.6 Giant Planets.- Observational Data.- The Theoretical Background: Equations of State.- Model of Giant Planets.- The Evolution of Giant Planets.- 1.7 Constitution of the Terrestrial Planets and the Moon.- Moon.- Mars.- Mercury.- Venus.- 1.8 Mineralogy of Meteorites and Asteroids.- 1.8.1 “Family Tree” of Meteorite Classification.- 1.8.2 Mineralogical Classification of Meteorites.- 1.8.3 Summary of Extraterrestrial Minerals.- 1.8.4 Interstellar Mineral Grains in Meteorites.- 1.8.5 Cosmic Spherules in Terrestrial Environments.- 1.8.6 Stages in the Complex Processes of Meteorite Origin.- 1.8.7 Meteorite Ages.- 1.8.8 Isotopic Composition and Isotopic Anomalies of Elements in Meteorites.- 1.8.9 Links Between Asteroides and Meteorites.- 1.9 Irradiation Effects on the Lunar Solids and Meteorites: Solar Wind, Solar Flares, and Galactic Cosmic Ray Records in the Lunar Minerals; Ion Implantation.- 1.10 Mineralogy of Astroblems: Terrestrial Impact Craters.- 1.10.1 Introduction.- 1.10.2 Cratering and Shock Metamorphism.- Cratering and Shock Physics.- Shock Metamorphism.- Shock and Cratering Experiments.- 1.10.3 Characteristics of Terrestrial Impact Structures.- Recognition.- Temporal, Spatial, and Size Distribution of Impact Craters.- Historic Collisions.- Simple Impact Craters. Complex Impact Structures.- Submarine Impact Structures. Projectile Identification.- 1.10.4 Geological Formations in and around Impact Structures.- Crater Basement.- Allochthonous Breccia Deposits.- Coherent Impact Melt Layers.- Distant Ejecta.- 1.10.5 Minerals in Terrestrial Impact Structures and Their Characteristic Features.- Shock Deformation and Transformation of Minerals.- Formation of New Minerals in Impact Melt and Vapor.- Post-shock Annealing and Alteration of Shocked Minerals.- 1.10.6 Examples for Terrestrial Impact Structures.- The Nördlinger Ries—an Excellently Preserved Complex Impact Structure.- Large Proterozoic Impact Structures (Sudbury, Vredefort), and the Bushveld Enigma.- Impact Diamonds at the Popigai Impact Structure.- 1.10.7 The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Impact Event.- 2 Mineralogy of the Mantle and Core.- 2.1 Mineralogical Structure of the Earth: Earth Geoscience Transect.- Phase Transformations, Composition, and the Nature of the Mantle Discontinuities.- Core-Mantle Boundary.- Core.- 2.2 The Upper Mantle.- 2.2.1 General Characteristics of the Upper Mantle.- 2.2.2 Direct Samples of the Upper Mantle.- Mantle Xenoliths in Basalts, Ophiolite Complexes, and Ocean-Floor Basalts.- Mantle Xenoliths and Xenocrysts in Kimberlites and Lamproites.- High-Pressure Mantle Rocks Technically Emplaced in the Crust.- 2.2.3 Composition and Evolution of the Upper Mantle.- Origin, Heterogeneity, and Evolution of the Upper Mantle.- Geothermometry of the Upper Mantle by Coexisting Minerals.- Oxygen Fugacities and Redox Conditions.- Mantle Volatiles and Water; Fluid Inclusions in the Mantle Minerals.- Upper Mantle Source of Metals.- 2.3 The Lower Mantle.- 2.4 The Earth’s Core.- 3 Mineralogy and Mineral Resources of the Ocean Floor.- 3.1 Stages of the Great Discoveries in the Ocean’s Geology, Metallogeny, and Mineralogy.- Ferromanganese Oxide Deposits.- Hydrothermal Discharge and Ore Deposits.- Phosphorites.- The Cost of Marine Geologic Discoveries.- 3.2 Minerals of the Sea Floor: Manganese Nodules, Crusts, and Phosphorites.- 3.2.1 Manganese Nodules General Features of Deep-Sea Mineral Formation.- 3.2.1 Distribution, Resources, and Prospects of Exploitation.- 3.2.2 Manganese Crusts.- 3.2.3 Phosphorites.- 3.3 Hydrothermal Mineralization in the Rift Zones of Mid-Ocean Ridges.- Tectonic Control of Ore Deposition.- Classification of Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits. Sources of Ore Minerals Composing Hydrothermal Deposits of Ocean Ridges.- Deposition of Hydrothermal Matter from Axial Hydrothermal Circulation.- Deposits Associated with the Alteration of Ultramafic Rocks.- The Dispersion of Hydrothermal Material and Formation of Metalliferous Sediments.- 4 Biomineralization.- 4.1 Tracers of Evolution. Impact of the Biosphere.- 4.2 Diversity and Phylum Distribution of Biominerals.- Selectivity of Biominerals.- “Strange Minerals”.- Special Features of Biominerals.- Two Typesof Biomineral-Forming Processes.- 4.3 Magnetotactic Bacteria.Microorganisms in Ore-Forming Processes.- 4.3.1 Magnetite Biomineralization, Magnetofossils, and Magnetoreception in Organisms.- 4.3.2 Microorganisms in Supergenic Processes.- Bacterial Processes in Sulfide Ore Deposits.- Microorganisms in Rock Weathering.- Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Biogeochemical.- Cycling of Sulfur. Bacteria in Iron-Manganese.- Mineralization of the Ocean Floor.- 4.3.3 Biogeotechnology. Bacterial Mining Technology for Gold, Cooper, and Uranium Ores.- 5 Environmental Mineralogy, Radiation Mineralogy.- 5.1 General Overview: The Global Problem of the Impact of the Production of Energy, Metals, Materials, Chemicals, and Radionuclides in the Modern Industrial Society on Air, Water, and Soil Pollution.- 5.2 Concepts and Methods for Applications of Mineralogy to Environmental Management.- 5.2.1 Chemical-Mineralogical Speciation.- 5.2.2 “Mineralogical” Barrier Systems.- 5.2.3 Analysis of Individual Airborne Mineral Particles.- 5.3 Special Examples of Applications of Mineralogy and Geochemistry to Environmental Problems.- 5.3.1 Atmospheric Dust.- 5.3.2 Asbestos and Other Fibrous Silicates. Health Effects.- 5.3.3 Anthropogenic Heavy Metal Contaminations in Aqueous Environments.- 5.3.4 Environmental Impact of Heavy Metal Ore Deposits.- 5.3.5 Treatment of Contaminated Dredged Sludge —Disposal Strategies.- 5.3.6 Flue Gas Purification Products of Coal-Fired Power Plants and Municipal Waste Incinerators. Characteristics and Waste Management.- 5.3.7 Solid-Solution Aqueous-Solution Equilibria in Cementitious Waste Stabilization Systems.- 5.3.8 Clays and Zeolites: Sorption and Exchange Properties and Their Implication in Environmental Problems.- 5.3.9 Clay Liners for Waste Dumpsa.- 5.3.10 The Conservation of Building Stones— Keystones of Their Deterioration and Conservation.- 5.4 Radiation Mineralogy.- 5.4.1 Natural Radioactive Materials and Radiometry.- 5.4.2 Management of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW).- 6 Gemology and Jewelry: Scientific and Technological Bases. Artistic Value of Minerals.- 6.1 New Concept of Gemology and Jewelry; Crucial Changes and Contemporary Situation.- 6.2 Diamond in Gemology.- 6.2.1 General.- 6.2.2 Mineralogical Types of Diamonds and Professional Classification of Real Crystals.- 6.2.3 Ideal Brilliant: Revealing Diamond Artistic Values Division of World Diamond Trade and World Market: Diamonds and Brilliants.- 6.2.4 System of Cut Diamonds Grading: Physicomineralogical Aspect.- 6.2.5 Clarity Grading and Microinclusions in Diamonds.- 6.2.6 Four Types of Diamond Color. Real Composition and Real Structure. Color Centers.- Real Composition of Diamond.- Real Structure of Diamonds. Types of Color Centers.- Optical Absorption and Luminescence Spectra.- Fancy Colors and Fancy Cuts of Brilliants.- Scale of Artistic Value of Diamonds.- 6.3 Problems of Gemology of Precious Stones.- 6.3.1 Methods of Precious Stone Identification.- 6.3.2 Competition of Synthesis and Methods of Distinguishing Between Natural and Synthetic Stones. Status of Synthetic Stones.- 6.3.3 Enhancement of Gem Stones.- 6.3.4 Hallmark for Gold and Certificate for Diamonds.- of Volume 1: Composition, Structure, and Properties of Mineral Matter.- of Volume 2: Methods and Instrumentation.

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