This book is intended to give an introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology at undergraduate level. These two subjects have been treated together because of the close links between sedimen tology as an academic dicipline, petroleum geology, which is the application of sedimentology, and a number of other aspects of petroleum exploration and production. The oil industry ist by far the most important employer of sedimentologists and the lively interaction that takes place between the academic community and the research laboratories and exploration departments of the oil industry has been very fruitful for both parties. Our knowledge of sedimentary basins now depends to a very large extent on data obtained by commercial petroleum exploration. Studies of actual rocks in outcrops, particularly if they are extensive, will always be important for sedimentologists, but subsurface data like seismic sections and well logs provide us with in much information on the three-dimensional distribution of facies that we could not otherwise obtain. Subsurface techniques are certainly important for pe troleum geologists, but also other sedimentologists should be able to use subsurface data. I have therefore included elementary intro ductions to the use of well logs and seismic methods in this book, with fundamentals of external controls on sedimentation such as basin subsidence and sea level changes. I have tried to present the state of knowledge at this level without referring to the original research papers except when specific data are quoted or used in illustrations.
1. Introduction to Sedimentology and Petroleum Geology.- 2. Textures.- Grain Size.- Presentation of Grain-Size Distribution Data.- Significance of Grain-Size Parameters.- Grain Shape.- 3. Sediment Transport.- A Little About Hydrodynamics.- Flow in Rivers and Channels.- Bed Forms.- Different Types of Sediment Transport.- 4. Description of Sedimentary Rocks and Facies.- Layering and Lamination.- Current Ripples and Cross-Bedding.- Erosion Structures on the Underside of Sand Beds (Sole Structures).- Structures on the Upper Surface of Beds.- Deformation Structures.- Concretions.- Trace Fossils.- 5. Sedimentary Facies.- Facies Analysis.- Alluvial Fans.- The Water Budget.- Glacial Sediments.- Desert.- Lacustrine Deposits.- River Deposits.- Delta Sedimentation.- River-Dominated Deltas (Mississippi Type).- Stability in a Delta.- Tide-Dominated Deltas.- Wave-Dominated Deltas.- Coastal Sedimentation Outside Deltas.- The Shore Zone.- Prograding Beach and Barrier Sequences.- Barrier Islands.- Tidal Sedimentation.- Shallow Marine Shelves.- Continental Slopes.- Submarine Canyons.- Sedimentation Along Island Arcs and Submarine Trenches.- 6. Chemical and Mineralogical Factors Which Influence Sedimentological Processes.- Ionic Potential.- Hydrolysates.- Redox Potentials.- pH.- Eh-pH Diagrams.- Coefficients of Distribution.- Isotopes.- Clay Minerals.- 7. Weathering and Geochemical Processes.- Mechanical Weathering.- Biological Weathering.- Chemical Weathering.- Weathering Profiles (Soil Profiles).- Distribution of Clay Minerals and Other Authigenic Minerals as a Function of Erosion and Weathering.- Sandstones.- Geochemical Processes in the Ocean.- Circulation of Water in the Oceans.- Clastic Sedimentation in the Oceans.- 8. Carbonate Sediments.- Carbonate-CO2 Systems in the Sea.- Geochemistry of Carbonate Minerals.- Classification of Carbonate Rocks.- Fossils.- Modern Carbonate Sedimentation Environments.- Sedimentary Facies.- Reefs.- The Role of Algae in Carbonate Sedimentation.- Coccolithophores.- Pelagic Carbonate Deposits.- Carbonate Diagenesis.- Lithification of Carbonate Sediments.- Dolomitisation.- 9. Other Biogenic and Chemical Sediments.- Silica (SiO2) Deposits.- Evaporites.- The Sabkha Model.- Evaporites in Lakes and Inland Seas.- Evaporation of Groundwater.- The Stability of Gypsum and Anhydrite During Diagenesis.- Iron- and Manganese-Rich Sediments.- Phosphorite Deposits.- 10. Stratigraphy.- Lithostratigraphy.- Biostratigraphy.- Time Stratigraphy.- The Relationship Between Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy and Chronostratigraphy.- Palaeomagnetism and Magnetic Stratigraphy.- Radiometric Age-Dating Methods.- Dynamic Stratigraphy.- 11. Seismic Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis.- Interpretation of Lithology and Sedimentary Facies by Means of Seismic Profiles.- Filling of Sedimentary Basins.- Tectonic Boundaries.- Changes in Sea Level.- Geothermal Gradients in Sedimentary Basins.- Sedimentation and Isostatic Equilibrium.- Fracturing and Subsidence of the Continental Crust (Rifting).- Subsidence Along Passive Margins.- Subduction Zones.- 12. Diagenesis in Clastic Sediments.- Diagenetic Processes in Sandstones.- 13. Petroleum Geology.- How Petroleum is Formed in Source Rocks, Migrates, and Accumulates in Reservoir Rocks.- History.- Formation of Petroleum — Production of Organic Matter.- Early Diagenesis of Organic Matter.- Kerogen.- Composition of Petroleum.- Migration of Petroleum.- Biodegradation.- Permeability and Porosity.- Capillary Pressure.- Osmosis.- Hydrocarbon Traps.- Drilling for Oil.- Composition of Porewater in an Oil Field.- Formation of Reservoir Rocks.- Carbonate Reservoirs.- 14. Well Logs.- Electric Logs.- Radioactive Logs.- Density Logs.- Sonic Logs or Acoustic Logs.- Dipmeter Logs.- Temperature Logs.- Caliper Logs.- Interpretation of Environment of Deposition by Means of Well Logs.- 15. Plate Tectonics and Oil Prospecting.- Basins Formed During Diverging Plate Movements.- Conservative Plate Boundaries.- 16. Production Geology.- Reservoir Energy.- Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods (Tertiary Oil Recovery).