Geochemistry uses the methods and philosophies of chemistry to explore and understand the Earth from the most elementary levels. The field has moved on from a prehistoric interest in metals, chert and clay, to become a modern science, utilizing sophisticated techniques to understand the Earth's processes and evolution. By looking deeply into the Earth's constituents, scientists are able to verify theories on its formation and, by corollary, on the formation of other planets in the universe. Because geochemistry involves intensive, detailed examinations of pieces of the planet, the subject touches upon many aspects of other scientific explorations, such as predicting earth tremors and volcanoes, the origin of life, environmental contamination and waste management, and finding mineral and organic ores.
The Encyclopedia of Geochemistry is a complete and authoritative reference text to this evolving field. Over 200 international scientists, each experts in their specialties, have written over 340 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including organics, trace elements, isotopes, high and low temperature geochemistry and ore deposits, to name just a few. The instruments used to refine geochemical techniques are each described in detail, and the chemical elements have their own separate entries which include common mineralogical, petrological and sedimentological depictions. Each topic incorporates cross-referencing to related articles, and also has its own reference list to lead the reader to the essential articles within the published literature. The entries are arranged alphabetically, for easy access, and the subject and citation indices are comprehensive and extensive.
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Physical Chemistry Table of contents
Acid Deposition. Acids and Bases. Actinium. Activation Energy, Activation Enthalpy, Activation Volume. Activity and Activity Coefficients. Aluminum. Americium. Analysis: field methods. Analytical Geochemistry. Analytical Techniques. Antimony: Element and Geochemistry. Aqueous Solutions. Argon. Argon-40 - Argon-39 Dating Method. Arsenic. Astatine. Atomic Absorption. Atomic Mass Unit, Avogadro constant and mole. Atomic Number. Authigenesis. Barium. Berkelium. Beryllium. Biogenic methane and gas hydrates. Biogeochemistry. Biomarker: aliphatic. Biomarker: aromatic. Biomarker: assessment of thermal maturity. Biomarker: coals. Biomarker: higher plant. Biopolymers and macromolecules. Bismuth: Element and Geochemistry. Black shales and sapropels. Boron. Bromine. Cadmium. Calcium. Calcium Carbonate and the Carbonic Acid Systems. Californium. Calorimetry. Carbon. Carbon-14 Dating and other applications. Carbon Cycle. Carbon Isotopes. Carbonate Compensation Depth. Carbonate Sediments. Cerium. Cesium. Chelation. Chemical Kinetics. Chlorine. Chromium. Clapeyron's Equation. Clay Membranes. Clay Minerals - Ion Exchange. Coal: Organic petrography. Coal: origin and diagenesis. Coal: Types and characteristics. Coal: Vitrinite reflectance and maturity assessment. Cobalt. Colloids. Complexes. Compound-specific isotope GC-MS. Copper. Cosmic Elemental Abundances. Cosmogenic Nuclides. Counters. Critical Points. Crystal Chemistry. Crystal Field Theory. Crystal Growth. Curium. Dating Methods. Debye-Huckel Equation. Diagenesis. Differential Thermal Analysis and Scanning Calorimetry. Diffusion. Dolomite and Dolomitization. Dysprosium. Earth's Atmosphere. Earth's Continental Crust. Earth's Core Geochemistry. Earth's Formation and Geochemical Evolution. Earth's Mantle Geochemistry. Earth's Ocean Geochemistry. Earth's Oceanic Crust. Eh-pH Relations. Einsteinium. Electrolyte Theory. Electron Capture. Electron Microprobe. Electronegativity. Elementary Particles. Elements: Actinide Series. Elements: Alkali and Alkaline Earth. Elements: Chalcophile. Elements: Distribution. Elements: Halogens. Elements: Heat Producing. Elements: High Field Strength. Elements: Incompatible. Elements: Lanthanide Series, Rare Earths. Elements: Large Ion Lithophile. Elements: Lithophile. Elements: Metalloids. Elements: Noble Gases. Elements: Platinum Group. Elements: Radioactive. Elements: Siderophile. Elements: Trace. Elements: Transitional. Enthalpy. Entropy. Epigenesis. Equilibrium. Equilibrium Constant. Erbium. Europium. Experimental Mineralogy and Petrology. Exsolution. Fermium. Fick's Laws. Fission Track Analysis. Fluid rock interactions. Fluids in Volcanic and Plutonic Environments: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions. Fluorine. Francium. Free energy. Fugacity. Gadolinium. Gallium: Element and Geochemistry. Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Gas source mass spectrometry. Geoavailability. Geochemical Classification of the Elements. Geochemical Exploration. Geochemical reference materials. Geochemical Tectonics. Geochemical Thermodynamics. Geochemistry. Geochemistry: Low Temperature. Geochemistry of Sediments. Geochronology and Radio Isotopes. Geologic Time Scale. Geothermal Systems. Geothermometers. Geothermometry and Geobarometry. Germanium: Element and Geochemistry. Gibbs-Duhem Equation. Gold. Hafnium. Helium. Helium isotopes. Henry's Law. History of Geochemistry. Holmium. Hydrocarbons. Hydrogen. Hydrogen Isotopes. Hydrologic Cycle. Hydrothermal Alteration. Hydrothermal Solutions. Hypogene. Indium: Element and Geochemistry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Iodine. Ion Exchange Chromatography. Ion Microprobe. Ionic Radii. Iridium. Iron. Isotope Dilution. Isotope Fractionation. Krypton. Laboratory Simulations of Oil and Natural Gas Formation. Lanthanum. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry ICPMS. Lawrencium. Lead. Lead: Stable isotopes. Lipid biomarker. Lipids (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria). Lithium: Element and Geochemistry. Luminescence. Lutetium. Lutetium-Hafnium Decay System. Magmatic Processes. Magnesium. Magnetism. Manganese. Mass Transfer. Mendelevium. Mercury. Metamorphic Environments: chemical mobility. Meteorites. Micro-Raman spectrometry. Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORB). Mineral Defects. Mineral Genesis. Mineralogy. Molybdenum. Mossbauer Spectroscopy. Natural gas. Natural Resources. Neodymium. Neodymium in Igneous Rocks. Neodymium in Sedimentary Rocks. Neon. Neptunium. Neutron Activation Analysis. Nickel. Niobium. Nitrogen. Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen Isotopes. Nobelium. Nucleosynethesis. Nutrients. Occurrence of Organic Facies. Oil seeps and Coastal Bitumens. Oil shales. Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation. Oklo Natural Nuclear Reactor. Onuma Diagrams. Ore Deposits. Organic Geochemistry. Organic Matter in Fossils. Organic matter in meteorites. Organics: Contemporary degradation and preservation. Organics: Sources and depositional environments. Osmium. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxygen. Oxygen Isotopes. Paleo-sea surface temperature estimation. Paleoenvironments. Paleoproductivity. Paleotemperatures. Palladium. Paragenesis. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Partition Coefficients. Peat. Periodic Table. Petroleum. Petroleum: hydrothermal. Petroleum: in-reservoir biodegradation. Petroleum: kinetic modeling. Petroleum: primary migration. Petroleum: surface geochemistry. Petroleum: types, occurence and reserves. Phase Equilibria. Phosphorus. Platinum. Plutonium. Polonium. Porphyrins. Potassium. Potassium-Argon Dating Method. Potassium-Calcium Decay System. Praseodymium. Precambrian Atmosphere. Precambrian Geochemistry. Precambrian organic matter. Promethium. Protactinium. Quantum Numbers. Radioactivity. Radium. Radon. Rare Earth Element Tetrad Effect. Remote Sensing. Rhenium. Rhenium - Osmium Dating Method. Rhodium. Rock-eval pyrolysis. Rocks. Rubidium: Element and Geochemistry. Rubidium Strontium Method. Ruthenium. Samarium. Samarium - Neodymium. Sampling. Scandium. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Sedimentary Fluids. Selenium. Silicon, Silica. Silver: Element and geochemistry. Sodium. Soil. Solid Solution. Solubility. Spectrophotometry. Stable Isotopes. Standard States. Steroidal compounds. Stoichiometry. Strontium: Element and Geochemistry. Strontium in Igneous Rocks. Strontium in Sedimentary Rocks. Sulfate Minerals. Sulfate Reduction. Sulfide Minerals. Sulfides in mafic and ultramafic rocks. Sulfosalt Minerals. Sulfur. Sulfur Cycle. Sulfur Isotopes in Geochemistry. Supergene. Surface Geochemistry. Synchrotron X-ray analysis. Syngenesis. Tantalum. Technetium. Tellurium. Terbium. Thallium. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Thermochemistry. Thermogravimetry. Thermoluminescence. Thixotropy. Thorium. Thulium. Tin. Titanium: Element and Geochemistry. Trace Element Partitioning Models. Tritium. Tungsten. Uranium. Uranium-Lead Thorium-Lead Decay System. Uranium Series Disequilibria. Van der Waals Force. Vanadium. Volcanic Gases. Volcanism. Water. Water: Fresh. Weathering: Chemical. X-ray Diffraction (XRD). X-Ray Fluorescence. Xenon. Ytterbium. Yttrium. Zinc. Zirconium: Element and Geochemistry.
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