2013, XXIV, 333 p. 105 illus., 42 illus. in color.
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A comprehensive work on the hazards of mining and its impact on ecology
The book is replete with numerous case studies based on the author's active research works
Results are based on the laboratory analysis of mine soil and their interpretation
The book is supported with various images showing the actual affected sites and their ecorestoration
The book will address the global issues with local approach, with special reference to Asian and Indian conditions
The book adopts an application-oriented approach for ecorestoration of coalmine degraded. The theoretical aspects of ecorestoration, and steps involved in ecorestoration process and experimental aspects of thorough analytical procedures have been discussed in detail. It emphasizes on the types of mining, land degradation, and biodiversity conservation while giving details of technical and biological steps, topsoil management, selection of plant species, seeding, nursery practices; adoption of innovative approaches like mulching, biofertlizer application, hydroseeding, superabsorbent; use of grass-legume mix; monitoring and aftercare of reclaimed sites; the indicators of sustainable ecorestoration; and Rules and Acts implemented and followed across the world.
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SECTION A.-Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION.- 1.1 Importance of Coal mining in India.-1.2 Opencastcoal mining and environmental issues.-1. 3 Mine waste and ecorestoration.-1.4. Current Ecorestoration Scenario in India.-1.5 Differences between natural soil and minesoil (mine spoil) .- 1.6 Ecorestoration.- 1.7 Relevant Issues of dump rehabilitation.- 1.8 Aims of Biological Reclamation.- 1.9 Philosophies of Revegetation.-1.10 Problems of Biological Reclamation.-1.11 Dump reclamation Practices in India.-1.12 Biological reclamation planning.-1.13 The Legal and Statutory Framework for Ecorestoration.-References.-Chapter -2: Ecology and Ecosystem in Mine Dedraded Land.-2.1 Preamble.-2.2 Ecology .-2.3 The Ecosystem.-2.4 Guild and Keystone Species.-2.5 Ecosystem stability.-2.6 Functioning of Ecosystem.-2.7 Species diversity.-2.8 Biogeochemical Cycles (nutrient cycles) .-2.9 Ecological Succession.-2.10 Terminology of Ecology.-2.11 Ecosystem components in restored site.-References.-CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL (TECHNICAL) RECLAMATION.-3.1 Introduction.-3.2 Issues related to physical reclamation.-3.3 Site Preparation.-3.4 Different Methods of Dumping.-3.5 Estimation Of Soil Erosion.-3.6 Diversion ditch design.-3.7 Sediment load.-Chapter 4: Minesoil properties affecting plant establishment and growth.-4.1 Introduction.-4.2 SOIL PHYSICAL FACTORS.-4.3 SPOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PLANT GROWTH.-4.4 Microbiological properties.-References.-Chapter 5: Topsoil Management.-5.1 Introduction .-5.2 Factors influencing topsoil properties.-5.3 Components of topsoil management.-5.4 Alternatives to Topsoil.-5.5 Monitoring Post Mining Soil Development on reclaimed site.- 5.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of use of topsoil .-5.7 Limitations of application of topsoil.-5.8 References.-Chapter 6: Programs and Planning of vegetation cover development.-6.1 Introduction.-6.2 Selection of plant species.-6.3 Exotic Plantations and Wildlife Habitat.-6.4 Direct seeding of tree species.-6.5 Hydro seedin.-6.6 Vegetation covers development techniques.-6.7 Criteria for selection of species.-6.8 List of common tree species use for revegetation programme.-6.9 Choice of Tree Plantation in OB dumps.-6.10 Suitability of direct seeding of tree species in the OB dumps.-6.11 Tree species suggested by CPCB for Minesoil reclamation.-6.12 Pollution tolerant and sensitive tree species.-6.13 Techniques of Tree Plantation .-6.14. Case study –I: Plantation activities in KDH project (CCL area) .-6.15 Case study-II: Plantation activities of Chirimiri area (SECL) .-Reference.-Chapter 7: Seeds – collection, storage & treatment .-7.1 Introduction.-7.2 Seed collection.-7.3 Seed processing (pods, capsules, etc.) .-7.3. Drying of Seed.-7.4 Seed storage and longevity.-7.5 Seed testing (germination rate) .-7.6 Causes of seed dormancy.-7.7 Seed treatment to overcome dormancy.-7.8 Calculation of quantity of seed.-7.9 Seed record.-References.-Chapter 8: NURSERY RAISING OF SAPLINGS FOR FOREST TREES.-8.1 Preamble - Nursery development .-8.2 Nursery techniques of common tree .-8.3 Rising of Subabul Plant (Leucaena leucocephala) Sapling.-Rising of Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea and Dendrocalamus strictus) sapling.-8.5 Rising of Bamboo Cutting (Bambusa Vulgaris) in the Nursery.-8.6 Nursery practices and Raising of important plants.-Chapter 9: Establishment of Grasses and Legumes Cover.-9.1 Introduction.-9.2 Benefits of Grass-legume mixtures.-9.3 Important Legumes.-9.4 Important grasses .-9.5 Planting procedure .-References.-Chapter 10 Application of Mulch, geotextiles and amendments.-10.1 Mulching.-10.2 Amendments.-10.3 Geotextiles.-10.4 Super-absorbent.-Chapter 11: Bio-fertilizer (Mycorrhiza) technology in Mine Ecorestoration.-11.1 Introduction.-11.2 The Mycorrhizal association- a plant root/fungus interaction.-11.3 Benefits of mycorrhizal association.-11.4 Importance of VAM Fungi in Coal Overburden dump Reclamation.-11.5 Importance of VAM Fungi in Coal Overburden dump Reclamation.-11.6 Formation of Mycorrhizal association.-11.7 Bulk VAM-Inoculum production and use (soil culture method) .-11.8 Measurement of Mycorrhizal growth response .-11.9 Laboratory study of VAM spores.-11.10 Laboratory study of root infection.-11.11 Application of VAM for Bioreclmation of OB dumps - Case studies in India.-11.12 Natural VAM colonization in Jharia coalfields.-11.13 Natural VAM colonization study in KD Heslong project of CCL (Maiti, 2006) .-11.14 Natural VAM colonization in the reclaimed dumps of SECL.- 11.15 Concluding remarks.-References.-Chapter -12: Biodiversity, Erosion and Conservation in Ecorestored site.-12.1 Introduction.-12.2 What is biodiversity? .-12.3 Ecorestoration and biodiversity conservation.-12.4 Biodiversity Wealth of India.-12. 5 Biodiversity, Society and Mining.-12.6 Integrated biodiversity management.-12.7 Conclusive remarks .-Chapter 13: Monitoring and Aftercare of Ecorestored Site.-13.1 Introduction.-13.2 Nutrient accumulation and cycling.-13.3 Restoration of Faunal population.-13.4 Management of Wildlife conservation.-13.5 Success Criteria and Monitoring of Ecorestored site.-13.6 Development of emergency plan for monitoring.-References.-Chapter 14: Evaluation of Reclamation success and Soil Quality Indicators.-14.1 Evaluation of reclamation success by ecological process.-14.2 Soil quality indicators.-14.3 Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon – as an indicator parameter.-14.3.1 Measurement of Microbial Biomass Carbon .-14.4 Dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA) in Ecorestored site.-14.5 Litter accumulation and Decomposition – an indicator.- References.-Chapter – 15: Forest & Wildlife Conservation Acts.-15.1 Introduction.-15.2 Forest Conservation Acts.-15.3 National Forest Policy (NFP), 1988.-15.4 National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP), 2002.-15.5 Biodiversity Act, 2002.-15.6. Procedure for Forest Clearance.-15.7 Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) .-15.8 Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) .-15.9 Critical Wildlife Habitats Guidelines (4-5-2011) .-15.10 Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2010.-15.11 Action plan.- 15.12. Schedule animals (THE WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972) .-Chapter 16: Ecological Impact Assessment of Surface Mining Project.-16.1 Introduction.-16.2 Ecological Impact Assessment (EcoIA) .-16.3 Habitat-based method (HES) for Biological Impact Prediction.-16.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of HES.-16.5 Conclusive remarks.-References.-Chapter 17: MINE CLOSURE .-17.1 Introduction.-17.2 Objectives of Mine closure.-17.3 Issues related to the Mine closure.-17.4 Mine closure planning.-17.5 Environmental impacts Mine closure .-17.6 Steps in Closure Plan Development .-17.7 Mine closure guidelines in India.-17.8 Key element of mine closure (coal mining) .- 17.9 Preparation of Mine closure plan report (Coal) .-17.10 Economic Repercussions of Mine Closure.-17.11 Mine closure activity.-17.12 Closure Costs (Abandonment Cost) and financial sureties.-17.13 IBM Guidelines for Mine Closure Plan.-References.-SECTION B.-Chapter 1 : SAMPLING TECNIQUE.-Introduction.-1.2 Objectives of soil testing.-1.3 Soil/Overburden sampling.-1.4 Steps to be followed during sapling.-1.5 On-site tests and description.-1.6 ample preparation (for sending laboratory analysis) .-1.7 Self test .-References.-Chapter 2 : ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS.-2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Coarse fractions (> 2-mm size) (Sieving method) .-2.3 TEXTURE ANALYSIS (U.S.D.A method)-International pipette method). .-2.4 Bulk Density And Pore Pace.-2.5 MOISTURE CONTENTS (Gravimetric method) .-Measurement of Field capacity (Field method) .-WATER HOLDING CAPACITY (WHC) .-2.8 WILTING POINT (by plant method) .-2.9 INFILTRATION RATE.-2.10 Test on analysis of soil physical parameters.-References.-Chapter 3: ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SOIL AND OVERBURDEN.-3.1 pH (pouvoir hydrogene or hydrogen power) .-3.2 LIME REQUIREMENT OF ACIDIC SPOIL / SOIL.-3.3. MEASUREMENT OF SOLUBLE SALTS (ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY) .-3.4 ORGANIC CARBON.-3. 5 ORGANIC MATTER (OM) BY LOSS OF IGNITION (LOI) .-3.6 TOTAL NITROGEN .-3.7AVAILABLE NITROGEN .-3.8 AVAILABLE PHOSPHOROUS.-3.9 TOTAL PHOSPHOROUS (Digestion Method) .-3.10 PHOSPHOROUS FIXING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL.-3.11 EXCHANGEABLE POTASSIUM (K) .-3.12 EXCHANGEABLE SODIUM (Na) .-3.13 EXCHANGEABLE CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM.-3.14 CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY (CEC) .-3.15 PLANT AVAILABLE SULFUR.-3.16 DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE.-3.17 ESSENTIAL MICRONUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS.-3.18 DETERMINATION OF PLANT AVAILABLE Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni AND Cd (DTPA - EXTRACTABLE) .-References.-Chapter 4: SOIL MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS.-4.1 Collection/ processing of samples.-4.2 Enumeration of Bacteria and Actinomycetes (by plate count- spread plate method) .-4.3 Filamentous fungi (Pour plate method). .-4.4 Study of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi (VAMF) .-4.5 SOIL RESPIRATION (CO2- EVOLUTION METHOD) .-4.6 SOIL ENZYME.-4.7 Self test of soil microbiology.-References.-CHAPTER 5: PLANT ANALYSIS, FIELD TRIALS AND VEGETATION SURVEY.-5.1 Plant Material Analysis.-5.2 Plant Sampling.-5.3 Bioassay and growth Trials.-5.4 Treatments.-5.5 Experimental design and layout.-5.6 Assessment of growth.-Annex: SOIL ANALYSIS.-Annex- 1: Soil Analysis .-Annex- 2: Apparatus/ Instruments required for sol analysis laboratory.