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Geomechanics is the basic science for many engineering fields, including oil and gas recovery, mining, civil engineering, water supply, etc., as well as for many environmental sciences, including earthquake prediction, ecology, landscape dynamics, and explosion works. Historically, the major concepts of geomechanics were founded on the methods of the elasticity theory and the static equilibrium of joints with solid friction. Underground hydrodynamics was developed quite separately and included only simple, conventional ideas of elastic pore-space deformation. Today, the situation is drastically different. Tremendous achievements in numerical computer technique have eliminated many of the routine difficulties of problem solution with respect to selected mathematical models. As the result, major efforts now are applied to sophisticated experimental studies and to new applications of generalized continuum theories. Of course, traditional rheological schemes have been adjusted to be into account the real properties of such geomaterials as soils, rocks and ice. The main changes have been connected with the kinematics of the internal structure of geomaterials that influences their strength and that can play unusual roles in dynamic processes. The theoretical considerations are in good agreement with experimental observations in situ because of precise measuring devices, impact of modern physics concepts and large-scale monitoring.
Preface. 1: Deformation and fracture of geomaterials. 1.1 Principles of continuum mechanics. 1.2. Thermodynamics and rheology of geomaterials. 1.3. Dilatant elasto-plasticity of geomaterials. 1.4. Particle rotation effects in granulated materials. 1.5. Brittle fracturing of rocks. 2: Mechanics of saturated geostratum. 2.1. Interpenetrating continua. 2.2. Microstructure and permeability. 2.3. Dynamic poro-elasticity. 2.4. Pore pressure and induced deformation of saturated strata. 2.5. Hydrofailure and hydrofracturing of rocks. 3: Hydrodynamics of reservoirs. 3.1. Basic nonstationary flows of a homogeneous fluid. 3.2. Stationary flows and well spacing. 3.3. Two-phase flows in reservoirs. 3.4. Flows in fractured reservoirs. 3.5. Filter-convective diffusion. 4: Complicated phenomena in reservoirs. 4.1. Miscible and gas-condensate flows. 4.2. Permafrost and gas-hydrate mechanics. 4.3. Electrokinetic effects. 4.4. Physical measurements in wells. 4.5. Rupture in dilating geomaterials. 5: Explosions and seismics in a geostratum. 5.1. Elementary theory of underground explosion. 5.2. Fronts and evolution of seismic waves. 5.3. Seismics of oil and gas reservoirs. 5.4. Microstructure transformation and wave generation. 5.5. Vibro-action at geomasses and reservoirs. 6: Structure and Rheology of the lithosphere. 6.1. Strength of geomaterials at depth. 6.2. Structure of the Earth crust. 6.3. The Mohorovichich boundary as impermeable sealing. 6.4. Fluid dynamics of the crust. 6.5. Superdeep drilling and well stability. 7: Geodynamical processes. 7.1. Global tectonic dynamics. 7.2. Basic concepts of earthquake mechanics. 7.3. Dilatancy and earthquake precursors. 7.4. Large-scale tectonic waves. 7.5 Fast tectonic changes and induced seismicity. Bibliography. Index.