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Most of the world’s population lives close to the coast and is highly dependent on coastal resources, which are being exploited at unsustainable rates. These resources are being subject to further pressures associated with population increase and the globalization of coastal resource demand. This is particularly so for the Asia-Pacific region which contains almost two thirds of the world’s population and most of the world’s coastal megacities. The region has globally important atmospheric and oceanic phenomena, which affect world climate such as the Asian Monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. The Asia-Pacific region also has highly significant marine diversity but over the last few decades, coastal resources such as mangroves, coral reefs and fisheries have experienced large-scale depletion. The need to find appropriate management solutions to these and other coastal issues is made more complex by the need to take account of international scientific predictions for global climate change and sea-level rise which will further impact on these coasts. The idea for this book arose from a meeting of coastal scientists in Kobe, Japan in May 2003. The meeting was organized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), an inter-governmental network, comprising 21 member countries, for the promotion of global change research and links between science and policy making in the region.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Asia-Pacific - Coastal management - Coasts - Global change - Global warming - Southern Oscillation - climate change - development - ecosystem - environmental change
Part 1 – The Asia-Pacific Coastal Zone 1 INTRODUCTION Coordinating lead authors (Nick Harvey and Nobuo Mimura) 1.1 Background and purposes (rationale) 1.2 Scope of the Synthesis Definition of region Definition of coastal zone Target areas 1.3 Values of A-P Coastal Zone 1.4 Scenarios for the Synthesis 1.5 Structure of this book 2 STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE A-P COASTAL ZONE Coordinating lead author (Nobuo Mimura) 2.1 Overview of the state of the environment 2.1.1 Drivers and environmental problems Natural Environmental changes Population growth, Economic development, and human activities Physical environment Biological and ecological environment Human settlement, uses, and industries Part 2 - New Directions in Research 3 GLOBAL CHANGE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE A-P COASTAL REGION Coordinating lead authors (Nobuo Mimura and Nick Harvey) 3.1 Global climate change and sea-level rise 3.2 Past trends and future estimates of global climate change and sea-level rise Regional trend of climate change and sea-level rise Global change scenarios and sea-level change projections (with reference to the IPCC TAR and 4AR) 3.3 Regional implications of global change scenarios and sea-level rise projections 3.4 Spatial and temporal variability in relative sea-level change 4 APPROACHES TO COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Coordinating lead authors (Nick Harvey and Mike Hilton) 4.1 Global drivers of coastal management reform Globalization (resource exploitation and ideas) Obligations under UNCC, Agenda 21, other treaties (eg MARPOL) -ESD Increased demand for community involvement Global recognition of indigenous peoples and their rights Experience of terrestrial (protected area) management Market based management tools Global change science War 4.2 Coastal problems and pressures – synopsis of change Intra-country coastal migration Loss of fisheries Increasing dependence on coastal resources (people pressure) 4.3 Management policy and practice Legislative mechanisms or regulations (diversity) – MH reviews - NGOs and international aid Tools and techniques Data bases GIS Coastal monitoring Special area management (SE Asia special areas often end up destroyed, facilitated with foreign aid) Integrated coastal management Co-management Separation of responsibilities Fisheries management Customary and traditional processes Issues of tenure and ownership 4.4 Need for further research on variation in institutional approaches to coastal management 5 HOW ARE CATCHMENTS (AND THEIR MANAGEMENT) INTERACTING WITH THE A-P CZ? Coordinating lead author (Shu Gao) 5.1 Characteristics of the catchments – system behaviours Catchment characteristics Energy and mass flows through the catchment Large catchments as complex systems Comparison between large and small catchment systems Evolution of catchment systems 5.2 Water/sediment/pollutant/nutrient discharges Catchment water cycling and freshwater discharges Sediment yield and input to the coast in relation to catchment characteristics Pollutant/nutrient discharges – effect of antropogenic