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Earth Sciences & Geography - Atmospheric Sciences | An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology

An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology

Stull, Roland B.

1988

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Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook.

The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizations, procedures, field experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions.

The author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers. Therefore, the book is useful to beginning graduate students as well as established scientists.

'The book is a welcome addition to the boundary-layer literature, one of the first truly comprehensive texts... ' (Boundary-Layer Meteorology)

'I found, in fact, that within hours of the book's arrival, I had consulted it twice..' (AMS Bulletin, 1989)

'Stull's book is destined to be the overwhelmingly favorite text and general reference in atmospheric turbulence and boundary layer physics during the1990s'. (AMS Bulletin, 1990)

'.. a good introductory textbook which is likely to be well used in the coming years.'  (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society)

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Cloud - Fog - Meteorology - Profil - Wind - convection - morphology - temperature

Related subjects » Atmospheric Sciences - Classical Continuum Physics - Pollution and Remediation

Table of contents 

1 Mean Boundary Layer Characteristics.- 1.1 A boundary-layer definition.- 1.2 Wind and flow.- 1.3 Turbulent transport.- 1.4 Taylor’s hypothesis.- 1.5 Virtual potential temperature.- 1.6 Boundaiy layer depth and structure.- 1.7 Micrometeorology.- 1.8 Significance of the boundary layer.- 1.9 General references.- 1.10 References for this chapter.- 1.11 Exercises.- 2 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 1. Statistics.- 2.1 The significance of turbulence and its spectrum.- 2.2 The spectral gap.- 2.3 Mean and turbulent parts.- 2.4 Some basic statistical methods.- 2.5 Turbulence kinetic energy.- 2.6 Kinematic flux.- 2.7 Eddy flux.- 2.8 Summation notation.- 2.9 Stress.- 2.10 Friction velocity.- 2.11 References.- 2.12 Exercises.- 3 Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow.- 3.1 Methodology.- 3.2 Basic governing equations.- 3.3 Simplifications, approximations, and scaling arguments.- 3.4 Equations for mean variables in a turbulent flow.- 3.5 Summary of equations, with simplifications.- 3.6 Case studies.- 3.7 References.- 3.8 Exercises.- 4 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances.- 4.1 Prognostic equations for the turbulent departures.- 4.2 Free convection scaling variables.- 4.3 Prognostic equations for variances.- 4.4 Prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes.- 4.5 References.- 4.6 Exercises.- 5 Turbulence Kinetic Energy, Stability, and Scaling.- 5.1 The TKE budget derivation.- 5.2 Contributions to the TKE budget.- 5.3 TKE budget contributions as a function of eddy size.- 5.4 Mean kinetic energy and its interaction with turbulence.- 5.5 Stability concepts.- 5.6 The Richardson number.- 5.7 The Obukhov length.- 5.8 Dimensionless gradients.- 5.9 Miscellaneous scaling parameters.- 5.10 Combined stability tables.- 5.11 References.- 5.12 Exercises.- 6 Turbulence Closure Techniques.- 6.1 The closure problem.- 6.2 Parameterization rules.- 6.3 Local closure — zero and half order.- 6.4 Local closure — first order.- 6.5 Local closure — one-and-a-half order.- 6.6 Local closure — second order.- 6.7 Local closure — third order.- 6.8 Nonlocal closure — transilient turbulence theory.- 6.9 Nonlocal closure — spectral diffusivity theory.- 6.10 References.- 6.11 Exercises.- 7 Boundary Conditions and External Forcings.- 7.1 Effective surface turbulent flux.- 7.2 Heat budget at the surface.- 7.3 Radiation budget.- 7.4 Fluxes at interfaces.- 7.5 Partitioning of flux into sensible and latent portions.- 7.6 Flux to and from the ground.- 7.7 References.- 7.8 Exercises.- 8 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 2. Time Series.- 8.1 Time and space series.- 8.2 Autocorrelation.- 8.3 Structure function.- 8.4 Discrete Fourier transform.- 8.5 Fast Fourier Transform.- 8.6 Energy spectrum.- 8.7 Spectral characteristics.- 8.8 Spectra of two variables.- 8.9 Periodogram.- 8.10 Nonlocal spectra.- 8.11 Spectral decomposition of the TKE equation.- 8.12 References.- 8.13 Exercises.- 9 Similarity Theory.- 9.1 An overview.- 9.2 Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis methods.- 9.3 Scaling variables.- 9.4 Stable boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.5 Neutral boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.6 Convective boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.7 The log wind profile.- 9.8 Rossby-number similarity and profile matching.- 9.9 Spectral similarity.- 9.10 Similarity scaling domains.- 9.11 References.- 9.12 Exercises.- 10 Measurement and Simulation Techniques.- 10.1 Sensor and measurement categories.- 10.2 Sensor lists.- 10.3 Active remote sensor observations of morphology.- 10.4 Instrument platforms.- 10.5 Field experiments.- 10.6 Simulation methods.- 10.7 Analysis methods.- 10.8 References.- 10.9 Exercises.- 11 Convective Mixed Layer.- 11.1 The unstable surface layer.- 11.2 The mixed layer.- 11.3 Entrainment zone.- 11.4 Entrainment velocity and its parameterization.- 11.5 Subsidence and advection.- 11.6 References.- 11.7 Exercises.- 12 Stable Boundary Layer.- 12.1 Mean Characteristics.- 12.2 Processes.- 12.3 Evolution.- 12.4 Other Depth Models.- 12.5 Low-level (nocturnal) jet.- 12.6 Buoyancy (gravity) waves.- 12.7 Terrain slope and drainage winds.- 12.8 References.- 12.9 Exercises.- 13 Boundary Layer Clouds.- 13.1 Thermodynamics.- 13.2 Radiation.- 13.3 Cloud entrainment mechanisms.- 13.4 Fair-weather cumulus.- 13.5 Stratocumulus.- 13.6 Fog.- 13.7 References.- 13.8 Exercises.- 14 Geographic Effects.- 14.1 Geographically generated local winds.- 14.2 Geographically modified flow.- 14.3 Urban heat island.- 14.4 References.- 14.5 Exercises.- Appendices.- A. Scaling variables and dimensionless groups.- B. Notation.- C. Useful constants parameters and conversion factors.- D. Derivation of virtual potential temperature.- Errata section.

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