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Earth Sciences & Geography - Atmospheric Sciences | Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Gornitz, Vivien (Ed.)

2009, XXVIII, 1049 p. 585 illus., 38 illus. in color.

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  • A massive learning resource with more than 230 articles by over 200 top experts in the field
  • Multidisciplinary approach touches on most areas of the earth sciences
  • Provides long-term perspective on current climate change and environmental issues
  • Uses key observational evidence and computer simulations to reconstruct past climates
  • Extensive bibliographies with up-to-date references make it a one-stop-shop for further study

Concern exists over human-generated increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases and their potential consequences to society. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 finds that global temperatures have increased by 0.8ºC since 1850 and that climate warming is now 'unequivocal'. While the human imprint is becoming increasingly apparent, Earth’s climate has shifted dramatically and frequently during the last few million years, alternating between ice ages, when vast glaciers covered Northern Europe and much of North America, and interglacials—warm periods much like today. Farther back in geologic time, climates have differed even more from the present. Thus, to fully understand the unusual changes of the 20th century and possible future trends, these must be placed in a longer-term context extending beyond the period of instrumental records.

The Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, a companion volume to the recently-published Encyclopedia of World Climatology, provides the reader with an entry point to the rapidly expanding field of paleoclimatology—the study of climates of the past. Highly interdisciplinary in nature, paleoclimatology integrates information from a broad array of disciplines in the geosciences, ranging from stratigraphy, geomorphology, glaciology, paleoecology, paleobotany to geochemistry and geophysics, among others. The encyclopedia offers 230 informative articles written by over 200 well known international experts on numerous subjects, ranging from classical geological evidence to the latest research. The volume is abundantly illustrated with line-drawings, black-white and color photographs. Articles are arranged alphabetically, with extensive bibliographies and cross-references.

Volume Editor:

Vivien Gornitz is a Senior Research Scientist, Center for Climate Systems Research Columbia University and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. She holds a B.A. from Barnard College and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. Her research interests include global sea level rise--past, present, and future, coastal hazards, climatic implications of land cover transformations, and planetary geology, including Mars. In addition to numerous scientific publications, she has edited Geology of the Planet Mars (Benchmark Papers in Geology, v. 48, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., 1979) and has contributed articles to several of the encyclopedias in the Earth Sciences Series. She was a Contributing Author for the IPCC in 1990, 1995, 2001, and 2007.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Climate change - MRWMay2006 - Paleoceanography - Paleoclimates - Pre-Quaternary climates - Quaternary climates

Related subjects » Atmospheric Sciences - Climatology - Geology - Oceanography - Paleoenvironmental Sciences

Table of contents / Sample pages 

List of Contributors.- Preface.- Acknowledgments.- Abrupt climate change.- Aerosols (mineral).- Albedo (feedbacks).- Alkenones.- Animal proxies, invertebrates.- Animal proxies, vertebrates.- Anoxic events.- Antarctica, glaciation history.- Antarctic Bottom Water and climate change.- Antarctic Cold Reversal.- Antarctic sea ice history, Late Quaternary.- Archean environments.- Archeological data and climate change.- Arctic sea ice.- Arid climates and indicators.- Astronomical theory of climate change.- Atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum.- Atmospheric evolution, Earth.- Atmospheric evolution, Mars.- Atmospheric evolution, Venus.- Banded iron formations and the early atmosphere.- Basal ice.- Beachrock.- Beetles as Quaternary and Late Tertiary climate indicators.- Beryllium-10.- Binge/purge model of ice sheet dynamics.- Bolide impacts and climate.- Bølling-Allerød interstadial.- Borehole climatology: climate change from geothermal data.- Carbon cycle.- Carbon dioxide, dissolved (ocean).- Carbon dioxide and methane, Quaternary variations.- Carbon isotopes, stable.- Carbon isotope variations over geologic time .- Carbonate compensation depth.- Carbonates, cool water.- Carbonates, warm water.- Cenozoic climate and long-term cooling.- Cirques.- CLAMP (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program).- CLIMAP.- Climate change, causes.- Climate forcing.- Climate variability, last 1000 years.- Coal beds, origin and climate.- Coastal environments.- Coccoliths.- COHMAP.- Continental sediments.- Corals and coral reefs.- Cordilleran ice sheet.- Cosmogenic radionuclides.- Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary.- Cretaceous warm climates.- Cryosphere.- Cyclic sedimentation (cyclothems).- Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles.- Dating, amino acid geochronology.- Dating, biostratigraphic methods.- Dating, dendrochronology.- Dating, fission tracks.- Dating, luminescence techniques.- Dating, magnetostratigraphy.- Dating, radiometric methods.- Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP).- Deltaic sediments, climate records.- Dendroclimatology.- Desert varnish as climate proxy.- Deuterium, deuterium excess.- Diamicton.- Diatoms.- Dinoflagellates.- Dole effect .- Drumlins.- Duricrusts.- Dust transport, Quaternary.- Earth laws and climatology.- Early Paleozoic climates (Cambrian-Devonian).- Eccentricity, earth’s orbit.- Eemian (Sangamonian) interglacial.- Electrical conductivity.- Eolian dust, marine sediments.- Eolian sediments and processes.- Eolianite.- Eskers.- Evaporites.- Evolution and climate change.- Faint Young Sun Paradox.- Flood basalts, climatic implications.- Foraminifera.- Geochemical proxies (non-isotopic).- Glacial erratic.- Glacial eustasy.- Glacial geomorphology.- Glacial isostasy.- Glacial.- megalakes .- Glacial sediments.- Glaciations, pre-Quaternary.- Glaciations, Quaternary.- Glaciofluvial sediments.- Glaciomarine sediments.- Glendonite/ikaite.- "Greenhouse" (warm) climates.- Heat transports, oceanic and atmospheric.- Heinrich events.- History of Paleoclimatology.- Holocene climates.- Holocene treeline fluctuations.- Hypsithermal.- Human evolution and climate change.- Ice cores, Antarctica and Greenland.- Ice cores, mountain glaciers.- "Icehouse" (cold) climates.- Ice-rafted debris (IRD).- Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).- Interstadials.- Iron and climate change.- Isotopic fractionation.- Kames.- Kettles.- Lacustrine sediments.- Lake level variations.- Late Glacial Maximum .- Last Glacial Termination.- Laterite.- Late Paleozoic climates.- Late Quaternary-Holocene vegetation modeling.- Late Quaternary megafloods .- Laurentide ice sheet.- Little Ice Age.- Loess deposits.- Marine biogenic sediments.- Marine carbon geochemistry.- Marine clay minerals.- Marine non-biogenic (inorganic) sediments.- Mars: water and past climates .- Mass extinctions: role of Climate.- Maunder minimum.- Medieval warm period.- Mesozoic climates.- Messinian salinity crisis.- Methane hydrates, carbon cycling, and environmental change.- Mid-Pliocene warming.- Millennial climate variability.- Mineral indicators of past climates.- Monsoons, Pre-Quaternary.- Monsoons, Quaternary.- Moraines.- Mountain.- glaciers,.- Mountain uplift and climate change.- Nearest-living-relative method.- Neogene climates.- Nitrogen isotopes.- North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) records.- North Atlantic Deep Water and climate change.- Obliquity, earth’s orbit.- Ocean Drilling Program (ODP).- Ocean paleocirculation.- Ocean paleoproductivity.- Ocean paleotemperatures.- Organic geochemical proxies.- Ostracodes.- Outwash plains.- Oxygen isotopes.- PAGES.- aleobotany.- Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.- Paleoclimate modeling, Quaternary.- Paleoclimate modeling, pre-Quaternary .- Paleoclimate proxies, an introduction.- Paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) records.- Paleogene climates.- Paleohydrology.- Paleo-ocean modeling.- Paleo-ocean pH.- Paleoceanography.- Paleolimnology.- Paleo-precipitation indicators.- Paleosols–pre-Quaternary.- Paleosols–Quaternary.- Paleotemperatures, proxy reconstructions.- Paleotempestology–sedimentary record of intense hurricanes.- Palynology.- Patterned ground.- Periglacial geomorphology.- Phosphorite.- Phosphorus cycle.- Pingo.- Plate tectonics and climate change.- Pleistocene climates.- Pliocene climates.- Pollen analysis.- Potassium-Argon/argon-argon dating.- Precession, earth’s orbit.- Pre-Quaternary Milankovitch cycles and climate.- Proglacial lacustrine sediments.- Proterozoic climates.- Quaternary climate transitions and cycles.- Quaternary vegetation distribution.- Radiocarbon dating.- Radiolaria.- Red beds.- Roche moutonnée.- Sapropels (organic-rich muds).- Scandinavian ice sheet.- Sea level change, Holocene.- Sea level change, Quaternary.- Sea level change, last 250 million years.- Sea level indicators.- Sedimentary indicators of climate change.- Snowball Earth hypothesis.- SPECMAP.- Speleothems.- Stable isotope analysis.- Strontium isotopes.- Sulfur isotopes.- Sun-climate  connections.- Tephrochronology.- The 8200 year BP cold event.- Thermohaline circulation.- Time series analysis.- Till and Tillites.- Transfer functions.- Triassic-Jurassic climates.- Uranium-series dating.- Varved sediments.- Volcanic eruptions and climate change.- Weathering and climate.- Wisconsinan (Weichselian, Wurm) glaciation.- Younger Dryas.- Author index.- Subject index.

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Distribution rights for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates: Pan World General Trading LLC, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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