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Computer Science - Theoretical Computer Science | Iteration Theories - The Equational Logic of Iterative Processes

Iteration Theories

The Equational Logic of Iterative Processes

Bloom, Stephen L., Esik, Zoltan

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993, XV, 630 pp.

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  • About this book

This monograph contains the results of our joint research over the last ten years on the logic of the fixed point operation. The intended au­ dience consists of graduate students and research scientists interested in mathematical treatments of semantics. We assume the reader has a good mathematical background, although we provide some prelimi­ nary facts in Chapter 1. Written both for graduate students and research scientists in theoret­ ical computer science and mathematics, the book provides a detailed investigation of the properties of the fixed point or iteration operation. Iteration plays a fundamental role in the theory of computation: for example, in the theory of automata, in formal language theory, in the study of formal power series, in the semantics of flowchart algorithms and programming languages, and in circular data type definitions. It is shown that in all structures that have been used as semantical models, the equational properties of the fixed point operation are cap­ tured by the axioms describing iteration theories. These structures include ordered algebras, partial functions, relations, finitary and in­ finitary regular languages, trees, synchronization trees, 2-categories, and others.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Algebraic Semantics - Algebraic Theories - Algebraische Logik - Algebraische Semantik - Fixed Point Theory - Fixpunkttheorie - Iteration - Programmiersprachen - Programming Languages

Related subjects » Mathematics - Theoretical Computer Science

Table of contents 

1 Mathematical Motivation.- 2 Why Iteration Theories?.- 3 Suggestions for the Impatient Reader.- 4 A Disclaimer.- 5 Numbering.- 1 Preliminary Facts.- 1 Sets and Functions.- 2 Posets.- 3 Categories.- 4 2-Categories.- 4.1 Cellc is a 2-Category, Too.- 5 ?-Trees.- 2 Varieties and Theories.- 1 S-Algebras.- 2 Terms and Equations.- 3 Theories.- 4 The Theory of a Variety..- 3 Theory Facts.- 1 Pairing and Separated Sum.- 2 Elementary Properties of TH.- 3 Theories as N x N-Sorted Algebras.- 4 Special Coproducts.- 5 Matrix and Matricial Theories.- 5.1 Matrix Theories.- 5.2 Theories of Relations.- 5.3 Matricial Theories.- 5.4 Sequacious Relations.- 5.5 Sequacious Functions.- 6 Pullbacks and Pushouts of Base Morphisms.- 7 2-Theories.- 4 Algebras.- 1 T-algebras.- 1.1 An Example: Algebras of Matrix Theories.- 2 Free Algebras in Tb.- 2.1 The T-algebras Tn.- 2.2 Infinitely Generated Free Algebras in Tb.- 3 Subvarieties of Tb.- 4 The Categories TH and var.- 5 Notes.- 5 Iterative Theories.- 1 Ideal Theories.- 2 Iterative Theories Defined.- 3 Properties of Iteration in Iterative Theories.- 4 Free Iterative Theories.- 5 Notes.- 6 Iteration Theories.- 1 Iteration Theories Defined.- 2 Other Axiomatizations of Iteration Theories.- 2.1 Scalar Axiomatizations.- 3 Theories with a Functorial Dagger.- 4 Pointed Iterative Theories.- 5 Free Iteration Theories.- 6 Constructions on Iteration Theories.- 7 Feedback Theories.- 8 Summary of the Axioms.- 8.1 Axioms for Iteration Theories.- 8.2 Axioms for Conway Theories.- 9 Notes.- 7 Iteration Algebras.- 1 Definitions.- 2 Free Algebras in T†.- 3 The Retraction Lemma.- 4 Some Categorical Facts.- 5 Properties of T†.- 6 A Characterization Theorem.- 7 Strong Iteration Algebras.- 8 Notes.- 8 Continuous Theories.- 1 Ordered Algebraic Theories.- 1.1 Free Ordered Theories.- 2 ?-Continuous Theoriesx.- 2.1 Free ?-Continuous Theories.- 3 Rational Theories.- 4 Initiality and Iteration in 2-Theories.- 5 ?-Continuous 2-Theories.- 5.1 The Definition, with Examples.- 5.2 Initial Algebras Exist.- 5.3 ?-Continuous 2-Theories are Iteration Theories.- 6 Notes.- 9 Matrix Iteration Theories.- 1 Notation.- 2 Properties of the Star Operation.- 3 Matrix Iteration Theories Defined.- 4 Presentations in Matrix Iteration Theories.- 5 The Initial Matrix Iteration Theory.- 6 An Extension Theorem.- 7 Matrix Iteration Theories of Regular Sets.- 8 Notes.- 10 Matricial Iteration Theories.- 1 From Dagger to Star and Omega, and Back.- 2 Matricial Iteration Theories Defined.- 3 Examples.- 3.1 SeqRel(inA).- 3.2 L(X*; X?).- 3.3 RL(X*;X?).- 3.4 CL(X*; X?).- 3.5 RCL(X*;X?).- 3.6 More Commutative Identities.- 4 Additively Closed Subiteration Theories.- 4.1 An A.C. Subiteration Theory of C(X*; X?).- 5 Presentations in Matricial Iteration Theories.- 6 The Initial Matricial Iteration Theory.- 7 The Extension Theorem.- 8 Additively Closed Theories of Regular Languages.- 9 Closed Regular (?-Languages.- 10 Notes.- 11 Presentations.- 1 Presentations in Iteration Theories.- 2 Simulations of Presentations.- 3 Coproducts Revisited.- 4 Notes.- 12 Flowchart Behaviors.- 1 Axiomatizing Sequacious Functions.- 2 Axiomatizing Partial Functions.- 3 Diagonal Theories.- 4 Sequacious Functions with Predicates.- 4.1 The Theory of One Predicate.- 4.2 Several Binary Predicates.- 5 Partial Functions with Predicates.- 6 Notes.- 13 Synchronization Trees.- 1 Theories of Synchronization Trees.- 2 Grove Iteration Theories.- 3 Axiomatizing Synchronization Trees.- 4 Bisimilarity.- 5 Notes.- 14 Floyd-Hoare Logic.- 1 Guards.- 2 Partial Correctness Assertions.- 2.1 An Alternative Definition of n-Guards.- 3 The Standard Example.- 4 Rules for Partial Correctness.- 4.1 Formalization.- 4.2 Formal Rules.- 5 Soundness.- 6 The Standard Example, Continued.- 7 A Floyd-Hoare Calculus for Iteration Theories.- 8 The Standard Example, Again.- 9 Completeness.- 9.1 The Invariant Guard Property.- 9.2 Completeness of Floyd-Hoare Rules.- 9.3 Guarantees of Completeness.- 9.4 Weakest Liberal Preconditions and Completeness.- 9.5 The Cook Completeness Theorem.- 9.6 The Unwinding Property.- 10 Examples.- 10.1 An Example of a Correctness Proof.- 10.2 The Interpolation Property Does Not Imply the Invariant Guard Property.- 10.3 A Non-Expressive Structure with Weakest Liberal Preconditions.- 11 Notes.- List of Symbols.

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