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Biometrics-based authentication and identification are emerging as the most reliable method to authenticate and identify individuals. Biometrics requires that the person to be identified be physically present at the point-of-identification and relies on `something which you are or you do' to provide better security, increased efficiency, and improved accuracy. Automated biometrics deals with physiological or behavioral characteristics such as fingerprints, signature, palmprint, iris, hand, voice and face that can be used to authenticate a person's identity or establish an identity from a database. With rapid progress in electronic and Internet commerce, there is also a growing need to authenticate the identity of a person for secure transaction processing. Designing an automated biometrics system to handle large population identification, accuracy and reliability of authentication are challenging tasks. Currently, there are over ten different biometrics systems that are either widely used or under development. Some automated biometrics, such as fingerprint identification and speaker verification, have received considerable attention over the past 25 years, and some issues like face recognition and iris-based authentication have been studied extensively resulting in successful development of biometrics systems in commercial applications. However, very few books are exclusively devoted to such issues of automated biometrics. Automated Biometrics: Technologies and Systems systematically introduces the technologies and systems, and explores how to design the corresponding systems with in-depth discussion. The issues addressed in this book are highly relevant to many fundamental concerns of both researchers and practitioners of automated biometrics in computer and system security.
1 Introduction to Biometrics.- 1.1 Why Biometrics?.- 1.2 What is Biometrics?.- 1.3 How does a Biometrics System Work?.- 1.4 Where can Biometrics Systems be Applied?.- 1.5 Book Perspective.- References.- I Biometrics Technologies.- 2 Human Body and Biometrics.- 2.1 Our Body: Overview.- 2.2 Physical Structures.- 2.3 Behavioral Characteristics.- 2.4 Ways of Behaving.- References.- 3 Signal and Image Processing.- 3.1 Digital Image Processing.- 3.2 Transformation Technology.- 3.3 Image Enhancement.- 3.4 Image Restoration.- 3.5 Data Compression.- References.- 4 Pattern Recognition.- 4.1 Pattern, Pattern Recognition and System.- 4.2 Image Segmentation.- 4.3 Feature Selection.- 4.4 Pattern Classification.- 4.5 Neural Networks.- References.- II Physical Biometrics.- 5 Fingerprint System.- 5.1 Review of Fingerprint Systems.- 5.2 Definitions and Notations.- 5.3 Fingerprint Image Processing.- 5.4 Minutiae Determination.- 5.5 Fingerprint Matching.- References.- 6 Palmprint Verification.- 6.1 A New Type of Biometrics: Palmprint.- 6.2 Datum Point Determination.- 6.3 Two Typical Features in Palmprint.- 6.4 Palmprint Classification.- 6.5 Experimental Results.- References.- 7 Face Recognition.- 7.1 Introduction to Face Recognition System.- 7.2 Detection and Location of Faces.- 7.3 Features Extraction and Face Recognition.- 7.4 An Dual Eigenspaces Method for Face Recognition.- 7.5 What Should We Do Next?.- References.- 8 Iris Biometrics.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Iris Recognition.- 8.3 Coordinate System.- 8.4 Texture Energy Feature.- 8.5 Experimental Results.- References.- III Behavioral Biometrics.- 9 Speaker Recognition.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Principles of Speaker Recognition.- 9.3 GSMSV Method.- 9.4 Experimental Results.- References.- 10 Signature System.- 10.1 Signature Verification.- 10.2 Off-line Signature.- 10.3 On-line Signature.- 10.4 A Signature Verification System.- 10.5 Internet/Intranet Signature Verification Application.- References.- 11 Other Behavioral Biometrics.- 11.1 Behavioral Biometrics System.- 11.2 Keystroke Biometrics.- 11.3 Gesture Recognition.- 11.4 Gait Biometrics.- References.- IV Biometrics Applications.- 12 Biometrics User Interfaces.- 12.1 Biometrics Interfaces.- 12.2 Human-Side Interface.- 12.3 Machine-Side Interface.- 12.4 Case Study: PalmScanner Interface.- References.- 13 Personal Authentication.- 13.1 Examples of Current Applications.- 13.2 Potential Application Areas.- 13.3 How to Select a Biometrics System.- 13.4 Application Programming Interface Standards.- 13.5 Information Resources.- 14 Biometrics Chinese Medicine.- 14.1 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).- 14.2 Four Chinese Diagnostic Methods.- 14.3 Various Observation Types in TCM.- 14.4 Tongue Diagnosis.- References.- 15 Future Work in Biometrics.- 15.1 Biometrics in Internet-Ecommerce.- 15.2 Key Technologies in Biometrics.- 15.3 Integrated Biometrics.- 15.4 VLSI Biometrics.