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Chemistry - Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Modern Chemical Technology and Emission Control

Modern Chemical Technology and Emission Control

Hocking, M.B.

XVI, 460 p.

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This text of applied chemistry considers the interface between chemistry and chemical engineering, using examples of some of the important process in­ dustries. Integrated with this is detailed consideration of measures which may be taken for avoidance or control of potential emissions. This new emphasis in applied chemistry has been developed through eight years of experience gained from working in industry in research, development and environment­ al control fields, plus twelve years of teaching here using this approach. It is aimed primarily towards science and engineering students as well as to envi­ ronmentalists and practising professionals with responsibilities or an interest in this interface. By providing the appropriate process information back to back with emis­ sions and control data, the potential for process fine-tuning is improved for both raw material efficiency and emission control objectives. This approach also emphasizes integral process changes rather than add-on units for emis­ sion control. Add-on units have their place, when rapid action on an urgent emission problem is required, or when control simply is not feasible by pro­ cess integral changes alone. Obviously fundamental process changes for emission containment are best conceived at the design stage. However, at whatever stage process modifications are installed, this approach to control should appeal to the industrialist in particular, in that something more sub­ stantial than decreased emissions may be gained.

Content Level » Professional/practitioner

Keywords » Absorption - Chlor - chemical engineering - chemistry - combustion - controlling - deposits - development - extraction - oleum - pollution - polymer - production - sulfuric acid - water

Related subjects » Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering - Pollution and Remediation

Table of contents 

1 Background and Technical Aspects of the Chemical Industry.- 1.1 Important General Characteristics.- 1.2 Types and Significance of Information.- 1.3 The Value of Integration.- 1.4 The Economy of Scale.- 1.5 Chemical Processing.- 1.5.1 Types of Reactor.- 1.5.2 Fluid Flow Through Pipes.- 1.5.3 Controlling and Recording Instrumentation.- 1.5.4 Costs of Operation.- 1.5.5 Conversion and Yield.- 1.5.6 Importance of Reaction Rate.- 1.6 Chemical Volume Perspectives.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 2 Air Quality and Emission Control.- 2.1 Significance of Man’s Activity on Atmospheric Quality.- 2.1.1 Natural Contaminants.- 2.2 Classification of Air Pollutants.- 2.2.1 Quantification and Identification of Particulates.- 2.2.2 Quantification and Identification of Aerosols.- 2.2.3 Analysis of Gaseous Air Pollutants.- 2.2.3.1 Wet Chemical Analysis of Gases.- 2.2.3.2 Instrumental Methods for Gas Analysis.- 2.2.3.3 Concentration Units for Gases in Air.- 2.2.3.4 Biological Methods for Air Pollution Assessment.- 2.3 Effects of Air Pollutants.- 2.4 Air Pollutant Inventories, and Pollutant Weighting.- 2.4.1 Automotive Emission Control.- 2.4.2 Air Pollutant Weighting.- 2.5 Methods and Limitations of Air Pollutant Dispersal.- 2.6 Air Pollution Abatement by Containment.- 2.6.1 Pre-combustion Removal Methods.- 2.7 Post-combustion Emission Control.- 2.7.1 Particulate and Aerosol Collection Theory.- 2.7.2 Particulate and Aerosol Collection Devices.- 2.7.3 Hydrocarbon Emission Control.- 2.7.4 Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions.- 2.7.5 Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 3 Water Quality and Emission Control.- 3.1 Water Quality, Supply, and Waste Water Treatment.- 3.2 Water Quality Criteria and Their Measurement.- 3.2.1 Suspended Solids.- 3.2.2 Dissolved Solids.- 3.2.3 Total Solids or Residue Analysis.- 3.2.4 Dissolved Oxygen Content.- 3.2.5 Relative Acidity and Alkalinity.- 3.2.6 Toxic Substances.- 3.2.7 Micro-organisms.- 3.2.8 Temperature.- 3.2.9 Oxygen Demand.- 3.2.10 Biological Indicators.- 3.3 Water Quality Related to End Uses.- 3.4 Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies.- 3.4.1 Simple Municipal Water Treatment.- 3.4.2 More Elaborate Municipal Water Treatment Methods.- 3.4.3 Municipal Water by Desalination.- 3.4.4 Water Quality Requirements of Industry.- 3.5 Treatment of Municipal Waste Waters.- 3.5.1 Discharge Requirements, and Remedies to Post-Discharge Degradation.- 3.5.2 Stream Assimilatory Capacities.- 3.5.3 Primary and Secondary Sewage Treatment.- 3.5.4 Tertiary, or Advanced Sewage Treatment.- 3.5.5 Sludge Handling and Disposal.- 3.6 Industrial Liquid Waste Disposal.- 3.6.1 Aqueous Wastes With High Suspended Solids.- 3.6.2 Aqueous Wastes Containing an Immiscible Liquid.- 3.6.3 Heated Effluent Discharges.- 3.6.4 Aqueous Waste Streams with a High Oxygen Demand.- 3.6.5 Highly Coloured Waste Waters.- 3.6.6 Fluid and Solid Combustible Wastes.- 3.6.7 Neutralization and Volume Reduction of Intractible Waste Streams.- 3.6.8 Ultimate Destruction or Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 4 Natural and Derived Sodium and Potassium Salts.- 4.1 Sodium Chloride.- 4.1.1 Solar Salt.- 4.1.2 Sodium Chloride by Conventional Mining.- 4.1.3 Solution Mining of Sodium Chloride.- 4.1.4 New Developments in Sodium Chloride Recovery Ill.- 4.2 Potassium Chloride Ill.- 4.2.1 Potassium Chloride Production and Use Pattern Ill.- 4.2.2 Potassium Chloride Recovery from Natural Brines.- 4.2.3 Potassium Chloride by Conventional Mining and Froth Flotation.- 4.2.4 Solution Mining of Potassium Chloride.- 4.2.5 Environmental Aspects of Sodium and Potassium Chloride Recovery.- 4.2.6 New Developments in Potassium Chloride Recovery.- 4.3 Sodium Sulfate.- 4.3.1 Production and Use Pattern for Sodium Sulfate.- 4.3.2 Recovery from Natural Brines.- 4.3.3 By-product Sodium Sulfate.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 5 Industrial Bases by Chemical Routes.- 5.1 Calcium Carbonate.- 5.2 Calcium Oxide.- 5.2.1 Lime Kiln Emission Control.- 5.2.2 Uses of Calcium Oxide.- 5.3 Calcium Hydroxide.- 5.3.1 Uses of Calcium Hydroxide.- 5.4 Natural and Synthetic Sodium Carbonate.- 5.4.1 Environmental and Related Concerns of Sodium Carbonate Production.- 5.4.2 Uses of Sodium Carbonate.- 5.5 Sodium Hydroxide by Causticization.- 5.5.1 Emission Controls for the Causticization Process.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 6 Electrolytic Sodium Hydroxide and Chlorine and Related Commodities..- 6.1 Electrochemical Background and Brine Pretreatment.- 6.1.1 Brine Electrolysis in Diaphragm Cells.- 6.1.2 Brine Electrolysis in Chlorate Cells.- 6.1.3 Purification of Crude Diaphragm Cell Products.- 6.2 Electrochemical Aspects of Brine Electrolysis.- 6.3 Brine Electrolysis in Mercury Cells.- 6.4 Emission Control Aspects of Brine Electrolysis.- 6.5 New Developments in Brine Electrolysis.- 6.6 Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide Production, Use and Balance.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 7 Sulfur and Sulfuric Acid.- 7.1 Commercial Production of Sulfur.- 7.2 Properties of Elemental Sulfur.- 7.3 Sulfur Recovery by Mining and Retorting.- 7.4 Frasch Sulfur.- 7.4.1 Environmental Aspects of Frasch Operations.- 7.5 Sulfur from Sour Natural Gas.- 7.5.1 Amine Absorption Process for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal.- 7.5.2 Claus Process Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide to Sulfur.- 7.6 New Developments and Emission Controls, Claus Technology.- 7.7 Sulfuric Acid.- 7.7.1 Contact Process Sulfuric Acid.- 7.8 Chamber Process Sulfuric Acid.- 7.9 Emission Containment for Sulfuric Acid Plants.- 7.9.1 Contact Process Sulfuric Acid Emission Control.- 7.9.2 Emission Control for Chamber Process Acid Plants.- 7.10 Recycling of Sulfuric Acid.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 8 Phosphorus and Phosphoric Acid.- 8.1 Phosphate Rock Deposits and Beneficiation.- 8.1.1 End Use Areas for Phosphate Rock.- 8.1.2 Environmental Impacts of Phosphate Rock Processing.- 8.2 Elemental Phosphorus.- 8.2.1 Electric Furnace Phosphorus.- 8.2.2 Uses of Elemental Phosphorus.- 8.2.3 Environmental Aspects of Phosphorus Production.- 8.3 Phosphoric Acid via Phosphorus Combustion.- 8.3.1 Environmental Features of Furnace Phosphoric Acid Production.- 8.4 Phosphoric Acid Using Sulfuric Acid Acidulation.- 8.4.1 Operation of the Acidulation Process.- 8.4.2 New Developments and Variations on Sulfuric Acid Acidulation Method.- 8.4.3 Emission Control Measures for Wet Process Acid.- 8.5 Phosphoric Acid Using Hydrochloric Acid Acidulation.- 8.5.1 Product Recovery by Solvent Extraction.- 8.5.2 Haifa (or IMI) Phosphoric Acid Process Details.- 8.5.3 Haifa Process Byproducts and Waste Disposal.- 8.6 Major Producers and Users of Phosphoric Acid.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 9 Ammonia, Nitric Acid and their Derivatives.- 9.1 Ammonia, Historical Background.- 9.1.1 Principles of Ammonia Synthesis: the Haber, or Haber-Bosch Process.- 9.1.2 Feedstocks for Ammonia Synthesis, Air Distillation.- 9.1.3 Ammonia Feedstocks, Reforming and Secondary Reforming.- 9.1.4 Ammonia Synthesis.- 9.1.5 Major Uses of Ammonia.- 9.1.6 New Developments in Ammonia Synthesis Technology.- 9.1.7 Environmental Concerns of Ammonia Production.- 9.2 Production of Nitric Acid.- 9.2.1 Nitric Acid Background.- 9.2.2 Nitric Acid by Ammonia Oxidation, Chemistry and Process Considerations.- 9.2.3 Process Description.- 9.2.4 Nitric Acid Concentrations and Market.- 9.2.5 Nitric Acid Process Variants and New Developments.- 9.2.6 Emission Control Features.- 9.3 Commercial Ammonium Nitrate.- 9.3.1 Ammonium Nitrate Background.- 9.3.2 Production of Ammonium Nitrate.- 9.4 Production of Urea.- 9.5 Synthetic Fertilizers.- 9.5.1 Fertilizer Composition.- 9.5.2 Formulation of Major Active Constituents.- 9.5.3 Environmental Aspects of Fertilizer Production and Use.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 10 Aluminum and Compounds.- 10.1 Historical Background.- 10.2 Production of Alumina from Bauxite: The Bayer Process.- 10.3 Aluminum by the Electrolysis of Alumina.- 10.4 New Developments in Aluminum Production.- 10.5 Emission Control Problems and Solutions.- 10.5.1 Environmental Impacts of Bayer Aluminum from Bauxite.- 10.5.2 Aluminum Smelter Emission Control Problems.- 10.5.3 Smelter Emission Control Strategies.- 10.6 Properties and Uses of Aluminum and its Compounds.- 10.6.1 Preparation and Uses of Aluminum Compounds.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 11 Ore Enrichment and Smelting of Copper.- 11.1 Early Development.- 11.2 Ore Occurrence and Beneficiation of Low Grades.- 11.2.1 Beneficiation of Low Grades Ores by Froth Flotation.- 11.2.2 Smelting of Concentrates Derived from Copper Ores.- 11.2.3 Electro-refining of Smelted Copper.- 11.3 Fabrication and End Uses.- 11.4 Emission Control Practice Related to Copper Processing.- 11.4.1 Mining and Concentration.- 11.4.2 Smelter Operation.- 11.5 Hydrometallurgical Copper Recovery.- 11.5.1 Basis Principles.- 11.5.2 New Hydrometallurgical Developments.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 12 Production of Iron and Steel.- 12.1 Early History and Development.- 12.2 Reduction of Iron Ores to Iron.- 12.2.1 Direct Reduction.- 12.2.2 Blast Furnace Reduction of Iron Ores to Pig Iron.- 12.3 The Making of Mild, and Carbon Steels.- 12.3.1 Pneumatic Steelmaking: The Bessemer Process.- 12.3.2 The Open Hearth Process.- 12.3.3 Electric Furnace Steel.- 12.4 Recent Developments: Oxygen Steelmaking.- 12.5 Iron and Steels, and their Properties and Uses.- 12.5.1 Iron-Carbon Alloys: Steels, and Cast Iron.- 12.5.2 Alloy Steels.- 12.6 Emission Control in the Production of Iron and Steel.- 12.6.1 Air Pollutants and Control Measures.- 12.6.2 Water Pollutants and Control Measures.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 13 Production of Pulp and Paper.- 13.1 Background and Distribution of the Industry.- 13.2 Wood Composition and Preparation for Pulping.- 13.2.1 Wood Composition and Morphology.- 13.2.2 Wood Preparation for Pulping.- 13.3 Mechanical Pulping of Wood.- 13.3.1 Stone Groundwood.- 13.3.2 Chip Refiner Groundwood.- 13.3.3 Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP).- 13.4 Chemical Pulping Processes.- 13.4.1 Chemimechanical Pulping.- 13.4.2 Semichemical Pulping.- 13.4.3 Chemical Pulping.- 13.4.3.1 Acid Sulfite Pulping.- 13.4.3.2 Other Sulfite-based Pulping Processes.- 13.4.3.3 Alkaline Pulping: The Soda, and Kraft (Sulfate) Processes.- 13.5 Bleaching of Wood Pulps.- 13.5.1 Bleaching of Mechanical and Chemimechanical Pulps.- 13.5.2 Bleaching of Chemical Pulps.- 13.6 Market Pulp, and Papermaking.- 13.7 Potential Pulping Emissions and Control Measures.- 13.7.1 Effluents of Mechanical Pulping.- 13.7.2 Control of Emissions from Kraft Pulping.- 13.7.2.1 Air Pollution Problems and Control.- 13.7.2.2 Water Pollution Control Practices.- 13.7.3 Environmental Impacts of Papermaking and Paper Recycling.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 14 Fermentation Processes.- 14.1 Introduction and General Principles.- 14.2 Brewing of Beer.- 14.2.1 Details of the Steps Involved in Brewing.- 14.2.2 Product Variety and Quality.- 14.2.3 Brewing Emissions and Controls.- 14.3 Winemaking.- 14.3.1 Classification of Wines.- 14.3.2 Principal Steps of Winemaking.- 14.3.3 Utilization and Disposal of Winery Operating Wastes.- 14.4 Beverage Spirits.- 14.4.1 Specifying the Alcohol Content of Spirits.- 14.4.2 Steps in Spirits Production.- 14.4.3 Distillation of “Beers”.- 14.4.4 Distinct Distilled Beverage Products.- 14.4.5 Environmental Aspects of Distillery Operations.- 14.5 Industrial Ethyl Alcohol.- 14.6 Aerobic Fermentations.- 14.6.1 Operating Details of Aerobic Fermentation.- 14.6.2 Important Aerobic Fermentations to Single Cell Protein.- 14.6.3 Examples of Aerobic Fermantation of Hydrocarbon Substrates.- 14.6.4 Amino Acids by Fermentation.- 14.6.5 Other Important Aerobic Fermentation Products.- 14.6.6 Soluble, and Immobilized Enzymes.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 15 Petroleum Production and Transport.- 15.1 Production of Conventional Petroleum.- 15.1.1 Modern Exploration and Drilling for Oil and Gas.- 15.1.2 Petroleum Production.- 15.1.3 Economizing Techniques.- 15.1.4 Supply Prospects of Conventional Petroleum.- 15.2 Liquid Fuel from Non-Conventional Geological Sources.- 15.2.1 Petroleum Recovery from Tar Sands.- 15.2.2 Petroleum from the Oil Shales.- 15.3 Environmental Aspects of Petroleum Production.- 15.3.1 From the Exploratory Geology Stage.- 15.3.2 Impacts of Exploratory and Production Drilling Activities.- 15.3.3 Emission Problems of Synthetic Crude Production.- 15.3.4 Petroleum Shipment.- 15.3.5 Oil Recovery and Cleanup from Oil Spills.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- 16 Petroleum Refining.- 16.1 Composition of Conventional Petroleum.- 16.2 Pretreatment and Distillation.- 16.2.1 Crude Oil Desalting.- 16.2.2 Petroleum Distillation.- 16.3 Molecular Modification for Gasoline Production.- 16.3.1 Thermal Cracking of Gas Oils.- 16.3.2 Catalytic Cracking.- 16.3.3 Polymer and Alkylate Gasoline.- 16.3.4 Upgrading of Gasoline Components.- 16.3.5 Gasoline Blending.- 16.4 Manufacture of Lubricating Oils.- 16.4.1 Vacuum Fractionation.- 16.4.2 Solvent Dewaxing.- 16.4.3 Lubricating Oil Decolourization.- 16.4.4 Formulation of Lubricating Oils.- 16.4.5 Synthetic Engine Oils.- 16.5 Fuel Oils, Asphalts, and Pitches.- 16.5.1 Distillate Fuel Oils.- 16.5.2 Residual Fuel Oils, Asphalts and Pitches.- 16.5.3 Asphalts and Pitches.- 16.6 Refinery Emission Problems and Control.- 16.6.1 Atmospheric Emission Control.- 16.6.2 Aqueous Emission Control.- 16.6.3 Refinery Waste Disposal Practices.- Relevant Bibliography.- References.- Formulae and Conversion Factors.

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