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Selective Oxidation by Heterogeneous Catalysis covers one of the major areas of industrial petrochemical production, outlining open questions and new opportunities. It gives keys for the interpretation and analysis of data and design of new catalysts and reactions, and provides guidelines for future research. A distinctive feature of this book is the use of concept by example. Rather than reporting an overview of the literature results, the authors have selected some representative examples, the in-depth analysis of which makes it possible to clarify the fundamental, but new concepts necessary for a better understanding of the new opportunities in this field and the design of new catalysts or catalytic reactions. Attention is given not only to the catalyst itself, but also to the use of the catalyst inside the process, thus evidencing the relationship between catalyst design and engineering aspects of the process. This book provides suggestions for new innovative directions of research and indications on how to reconsider the field of selective oxidation from different perspectives, outlining that is not a mature field of research, but that new important breakthroughs can be derived from fundamental and applied research. Suggestions are offered on how to use less conventional approaches in terms of both catalyst design and analysis of the data.
1. 1.1. Introduction. 1.2. Technological and Industrial Developments. 1.3. New Opportunities from Fundamental Research. 1.4. The Ecological Issue as a Driving Force. 1.5. Heterogeneous Versus Homogeneous Catalysis In Selective Oxidation. 2. New Technological and Industrial Opportunities: Options. 2.1. Use of Alternative Raw Materials. 2.2. New Reactor Technology Options. 2.3. Air Versus Oxygen Processes. 3. New Technological and Industrial Opportunities: Examples. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Examples of Opportunities for New Oxidation Processes. 3.3. Examples of New Catalytic Systems. 3.4. Conclusions. 4. Control of the Surface activity of Solid Catalysts. Industrial Processes of Alkane Oxidation. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Maleic Anhydride from n-Butane on V-P-Oxides. 4.3. Propane Ammoxidation to Acrylonitrile on V-Sb-Oxides. 5. Control of the Surface Reactivity of Solid Catalysts. New Alkane Oxidation Reactions. 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Alkanes. 5.3. New Types of Oxidation of Light Alkanes. 6. New Fields of Application of Solid Catalysts 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Selective Oxidation in the Liquid Phase with Solid or Mesoporous Materials. 6.3. Heteropoly Compounds as Molecular Type Catalysts. 6.4. Solid Wacker-Type Catalysts. 7. New Concepts and New Strategies in the Field of Selective Oxidation. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Selective Oxidation at Near Room Temperature Using O2. 7.3.New Approaches to Generate Active Oxygen Species. 7.4. Novel Reaction Medium. 7.5. Conclusions. 8. New Aspects in the Mechanisms of Selective Oxidation and Structure/Activity Relationships. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. Active Sites or `Living Active Surface'? 8.3. Surface Oxygen Species and Their Role in Selective Oxidation. 8.4. Modification of the Surface Reactivity by Chemisorbed Species. 8.5. Role of Acido-Base Properties in Catalytic Oxidation. 8.6. Reactive Intermediates in Heterogeneous Oxidative Catalysis. 8.7. Presence of Competitive Pathways of Conversion and Factors Governing Their Relative Rates. 8.8. Dynamics of Catalytic Oxidation Processes. 8.9. Conclusions.