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Bioelectrochemistry: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive compilation of all the physicochemical aspects of the different biochemical and physiological processes. Macromolecules, essentially nucleic acids, proteins and complex carbohydrates, are the building blocks of cell structure and function. This fifth volume in the "Bioelectrochemistry" series deals essentially with water-soluble biomacromolecules, since the properties of membrane-bound proteins are considered in other volumes of this series. The first chapter provides an extensive review of the structure, chemical reactivity and electromagnetic properties of nucleic acids. The following five chapters concentrate on proteins, their structure, folding and function, the electrochemistry of redox proteins and voltammetric methods. Special attention is devoted to the field of thiol/disulfide exchange as well as to one particular class of proteins, the iron-sulfur proteins. The last chapter considers the chemistry and properties of glycosaminoglycans, the complex charged polysaccharides of the cell surface and extracellular matrix. This series is intended as a set of source books for graduate and postgraduate students as well as research workers at all levels in bioelectrochemistry.
1. Structure, chemical reactivity and electromagnetic properties of nucleic acids.- Nucleic acid structure.- Chemical reactivity of nucleic acids.- Electric and magnetic properties of nucleic acids.- 2. Proteins: Structure, folding and function.- Protein structure.- Inverse temperature transitions (cold denaturation) in polypeptides and proteins.- Changing the temperature, Tt, of the inverse temperature transition for folding and assembly.- Development of a macroscopic assay system for observing the folding and assembly transition and its equivalent of energy conversion.- The ?Tt-mechanism for energy conversion in polypeptides and proteins.- The ?Tt hydrophobic paradigm for protein folding and function.- Concluding comment.- 3. Electrochemistry of redox proteins.- Protein electrochemistry.- The nature of the electrode surface.- STM and AFM of electrode surfaces.- The microscopic model.- Protein—protein complexes.- Direct enzyme electrochemistry.- Biosensors.- Conclusions.- 4. Applications of voltammetric methods for probing the chemistry of redox proteins.- Voltammetric methods for studying redox proteins.- Applications to studies of redox-active sites in proteins.- Concluding remarks.- 5. Thiol/disulfide exchange and redox potentials of proteins.- Equilibrium behavior of thiols/disulfides in a redox barrier.- Measuring thiol/disulfide oxidation potentials.- Studies with small molecules.- Factors affecting protein thiol/disulfide oxidation potentials.- Thiol/disulfide interconversions during enzyme catalysis.- Thiol/disulfides as redox carriers.- Role of oxidation potential of a dithiol in protein folding.- Proteins in which a disulfide bond stabilizes structure.- Redox active thiol/disulfides which affect activity.- Catalysis of thiol/disulfide exchange.- Conclusions.- 6. Electrochemistry of iron-sulfur proteins.- to iron-sulfur proteins.- Electrochemical techniques.- Voltammetric studies of iron-sulfur proteins.- Conclusions.- 7. Glycosaminoglycans: Sulphated polysaccharides of the cell surface and extracellular matrix.- Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis.- Glycosaminoglycan interactions.- Glycosaminoglycan sequencing.- Clinical application of glycosaminoglycans.