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Chemistry | Nanoparticles - Building Blocks for Nanotechnology


Building Blocks for Nanotechnology

Rotello, Vincent

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2004, X, 284 p.

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The integration of top-down lithographic techniques with synthetic organic and inorganic technologies is a key challenge for the development of effective nanosca1e devices. In terms of assembly, nanoparticles provide an excellent tool for bridging the gap between the resolution of electron beam lithography (-60 nm) and the molecular level. Nanoparticles possess an array of unique properties associated with their core materials, including distinctive magnetic, photonic and electronic behavior. This behavior can be controlled and applied through monolayer functionalization and assembly strategies, making nanoparticles both scaffolds and building blocks for nanotechnology. The diverse structures and properties of nanoparticles makes them useful tools for both fundamental studies and pragmatic applications in a range of disciplines. This volume is intended to provide an integrated overview of the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles, and their applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science. The first three chapters focus on the creation and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles, covering some of the myriad core materials and shapes that have been created. The remaining chapters of the book discuss the assembly of nanoparticles, and applications of both discrete particles and particle assemblies in a wide range of fields, including device and sensor fabrication, catalysis, biology, and nanosca1e electronic and magnetic systems.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » materials science - nanoparticle - nanotechnology

Related subjects » Characterization & Evaluation of Materials - Chemistry - Materials - Nanotechnology - Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films, Corrosion, Coatings

Table of contents 

1. Synthesis and Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles.- 1.3 Synthesis of Single Metal MNPs.- 1.4 Synthesis of Alloyed Metal Nanoparticles.- 1.5 Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles.- 1.6 Self-assembled monolayers on Iron and Iron Oxide MNPs.- 1.7 Preparation of Bioconjugate MNPs.- 1.8 BlOsynthetic routes to MNPs.- 1.9 Synthesis of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Nanoparticles.- 1.10 Synthesis of Transition Metal Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles.- 1.11 The Limits of Nano: Single Molecule Magnets.- 1.12 Summary and Outlook.- 2. Semiconductor Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Integration into Polymers for the Generation of Novel Composite Materials.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Nanoparticle Synthesis.- 2.1.1 Room Temperature Synthetic Methods.- 2.1.2 High Temperature Organometallic Syntheses.- 2.3 Semiconductor Nanoparticle/Polymer Composites.- 2.3.1 Polymer-Nanoparticle Blends.- 2.3.2 Nanoparticle Growth in Polymers.- 2.4 Nanoparticle-Polymer Composites Obtained by End-Group Attachment.- 2.4.1 Chain-End Attachment of Preformed Polymers.- 2.4.2 Radial Growth of Polymers from Nanoparticle Surfaces.- 2.5 Self- and Directed-Assembly of Semiconducting Nanoparticles.- 2.6 Summary and Future Outlook.- 3. Architecture of Nanocrystal Building Blocks.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Crystal Shape.- 3.1.2 Basic Nanoscale Building Blocks.- 3.2 Recent Developments in the Architectural Control of Nanobuilding Blocks.- 3.2.1 0-Dimensional Spheres and Cubes.- 3.2.2 1-Dimensional Rods and Wires.- 3.2.3 2-Dimensional Discs.- 3.2.4 Novel Nanobuilding Structures.- 3.2.5 Superstructures: Assemblies of Nanobuilding Blocks.- 3.3 Shape-Guiding Growth Mechanisms.- 3.3.1 Approaches for Obtaining 1-Dimensional Nanocrystals.- 3.4 Critical Parameters for Architecture Guiding Processes of Nanocrystals.- 3.4.1 Effects of Crystalline Phase of Nucleus on Final Shapes.- 3.4.2 Shape Control under Kinetic Controlled Processes and Capping Molecular Effects.- 3.5 Future Direction.- 4. Nanoparticle Scaffolds for Devices and Sensors.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Nanoparticles Modified with Molecular or Ionic Receptors.- 4.2.1 Generalities.- 4.2.2 Hydrogen Bonding Receptors.- 4.2.3 Crown Ether Receptors.- 4.2.4 Cyclodextrins.- 4.2.5 Anion Receptors.- 4.2.6 Other Receptors.- 4.3 Thin Film Sensors Containing Metal Colloidal Particles.- 4.4 Organized Nanoparticle Assemblies.- 4.5 Conclusions and Outlook.- 5. Nanoparticles in Catalysis.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Fundamental Issues.- 5.3 Challenges and Opportunities.- 5.4 Fabrication of Nanoparticles as Catalysts.- 5.5 Traditional Approaches.- 5.6 Surface-Capping Approaches.- 5.7 Surpported Nanoparticle catalysts.- 5.7.1 Gold Nanoparticle Catalysts.- 5.7.2 Other Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts.- 5.8 Assembled Nanoparticle Catalysts.- 5.9 The Nanoparticle Assembly.- 5.10 The Catalytic Activation.- 5.10.1 Electrochemical Activation.- 5.10.2 Thermal Activation.- 5.11 Conclusions and Prospectus.- 6. Adventures with Smart Chemical Sensing: Electrooptically Responsive Photonic Crystals.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Diffraction from CCA Photonic Crystals.- 6.2.1 Diffraction Efficiencies and Band Gaps.- 6.2.2 Standing Wave Electric Field Localization.- 6.3 CCA Optical Switching and Optical Limiting.- 6.4 Polymerized Colloidal Array Switching and Optical Limiting.- 6.4.1 PCCA Thermal Diffraction Switching Phenomena.- 6.4.2 PCCA Photochemical Switching Phenomena.- 6.4.3 PCCA Refractive Index Diffraction Switching Phenomena.- 6.5 PCCA Photonic Crystal Chemical Sensing Materials.- 6.5.1 Temperature Sensing IPCCA Sensors.- 6.5.2 Electrostatically Driven Chemical IPCCA Sensors.- 6.5.3 Crosslinking Driven IPCCA Chemical Sensors.- 6.6 Conclusions.- 7. Plasmonic Nanomaterials: Enhanced Optical Properties from Metal Nanoparticles and Their Ensembles.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Surface Plasmons in Spherical Metal Nanoparticles.- 7.3 Surface Plasmons: Theoretical Considerations.- 7.4 Surface Plasmons and the Material function.- 7.4.1 Size Confinement Effects on the Plasmon Band.- 7.4.2 Skin Depth.- 7.4.3 Local Dielectric and Surface Effects.- 7.4.4 Plasmon Decay and Radiative Damping.- 7.4.5 Anisotropic Metal Nanoparticles.- 7.4.6 Surface Plasmons in Metal Nanorods and Nanowires.- 7.4.7 Surface Plasmons in Metal Nanoprisms and Polyhedra.- 7.5 Metal Nanoparticle Ensembles.- 7.5.1 Discrete Metal Nanoparticle Clusters.- 7.5.2 Periodic Metal Nanoparticle 2D Arrays.- 7.5.3 Metal and Metal-Dielectric Nanoparticles in 3D Superlattices.- 7.5.4 Nonperiodic Nanoparticle Ensembles.- 7.6 Conclusion.- 8. Nanoparticle Polymer Ensembles.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Assembly of Polymer-Nanoparticle Composite Materials.- 8.3 Nanoparticle Building Blocks and Polymer Scaffolds.- 8.3.1 Nanoparticle Building Blocks.- 8.3.2 Polymer Scaffolds.- 8.4 Polymer-Nanoparticle Assemblies for Catalyic Applications.- 8.5 Fabrication of Polymer-Mediated Organized Nanoparticle Assemblies.- 8.6 Organized Polymer-Nanoparticle Assemblies on Surfaces.- 8.7 Dendrimers in Catalytic and Assembly.- 8.8 Conclusion.- 9. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanoparticles.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Electrostatic Nanoparticle Assembly in Solution.- 9.3 Electrostatically Driven Nanoparticle Assembly in Thin Films.- 9.3.1 Electrostatic Assembly of Nanoparticles on Self-Assembled Monolayers.- 9.3.2 Electrostatic Assembly of Nanoparticles at the Air-Water Interface.- 9.3.3 Layer-by-Layer Nanoparticle Assembly Driven by Electrostatic Interactions.- 9.3.4 Nanocomposites by Electrostatic Entrapment in Thermally Evaporated Lipid Films.- 10. Biological and Biomimetic Applications of Nanoparticles.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Colloidal Gold Bioconjugates.- 10.3 Low and High Nuclearity Metal Clusters Conjugates.- 10.4 Biological Applications of Semiconductors Quantum Dots.- 10.5 DNA and Nanoparticles.- 10.6 DNA Recognition.- 10.7 DNA-Nanoparticle-Based Devices.- 10.8 Biomimetic Applications: Mimicry of Carbohydrate-Protein and Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Interactions.- 10.9 Mimicry of Polyvalency and Cooperativity.- 10.10 Nanomaterials as Delivery Systems.- 10.11 Conclusion.- 283.

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