active industrial participation in the organizing committee. Recently, the conference has begun a regular informal industrial roundtable (Session 4). This has become very popular as it allows industrial participants to speak more openly. For a broader perspective, R. James Woolsey, Former Direc tor of Central Intelligence Agency, gave an after-dinner address on "Wagon Trains for the 21st Century: The Role for Biorefineries. " He urged the attendees of the importance of their efforts to develop renewable, benign processes for the United States and the world based on both security and prosperity reasons. These related to energy supply, support of domestic agriculture, global warming, and other issues. With the Twentieth Symposium, we continued the tradition of pro viding an informal, congenial atmosphere that our participants find condu cive to pursuing technical discussion of program topics. The technical program consisted of 35 oral presentations, a roundtable forum, two spe cial topic discussions, and a poster session of 133 posters. This year, tech nical topics included: Session 1: Feedstocks: New Supplies and Processing Session 2: Applied Biological Research Session 3: Bioprocessing Research Session 4: Emerging Opportunities for Industrial Chemicals Session 5: Bioprocess Evaluation and Confirmation Session 6: Enzymatic Processes and Enzyme Production Special topic discussions were held on "Defining the Future Separa tions Needs Derived from Bioprocessing" by Earl Beaver, Monsanto Com pany, St.
Session I. Natural and Somatic Embryo Development in Loblolly Pine: Gene Expression Studies Using Differential Display, J. Cainey, N. Xu, G.S. Pullman, V.T. Ciavatta, and B. Johns. Peracetic Acid as an Alternative Pretreatment for Ethanol Production from Biomass, L.C. Teixeira, J.C. Linden, and H.A. Schroeder. Extrusion Processing for Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX), B.E. Dale, J. Weaver, and F.M. Byers. Optimization of Steam Explosion of Softwoods to Enhance Hemicellulose Recovery and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, M. Wu, K. Chang, A. Boussaid, D. Gregg, R. Beatson, and J.N. Saddler. Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and Computer Tomography X-Ray Densitometry: New Techniques for Characterizing Short-Rotation Woody Crop Feedstock Properties, G. Tuskan, D. West, M. Davis, A. Wiselogel, N. Wheeler, D. Neale, H. Bradshaw, and R. Dinus. Modeling the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute-Acid-Pretreated Douglas Fir, D.J. Schell, M.F. Ruth, and M.P. Tucker. An Environmentally Friendly Candidate for Lubricating Oil, F. Karaosmanoglu and A. Özgülsün. Comparison of Different Methods for the Detoxification of Lignocellulose Hydrolysates of Spruce, S. Larsson, L.J. Jönsson, A. Reimann, and N-O. Nilvebrant. Transgenic Alfalfa Fiber as a Feedstock for Ethanol and Organic Acids, R.G. Koegel, H.K. Sreenath, and R.J. Staub. Steam Explosion of Straw in Batch and Continuous Reactors, D. Viggiano, F. Zimbardi, M. Demichele, D. Cuna, G. Cardinale, and F. Nanna. Oxidation of Organosolv Lignins in Acetic Acid, A.R. Goncalves and U. Schuchardt. Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Softwoods, Q.A. Nguyen, M.P. Tucker, F.A. Keller, D.A. Beaty, K.M. Connors, and F.P. Eddy. Session II. Applied Biological Research - Introduction, Douglas C. Cameron and Min Zhang. Evaluation of Recombinant Strains of Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production from Glucose/Xylose Media, E. Joachimsthal, K.D. Haggett, and P.L. Rogers. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study on the Thermal Stability of a Chimeric PQQ GlucoseDehydrogenase and its Structural Interpretation, Arief Budi Witarto and Takafumi Ohtera. Isolation and Analysis of Tetraheme-Bound Cytochrome from Photosynthetic Reaction Centers of Rhodopseudomonas viridis, Chikashi Nakamuram Miki Hasegawa, Masayuki Hara, and Jun Miyaki. Invertase Production is Related to the Nitrogen Source in Hansenula anomala, Maria B. De Medeiros and Patricia M.B. De Carvalho. Fermentation Performance Characteristics of a Prehydrolysate-Adapted Xylose-Fermenting Recombinant Zymomonas in Batch and Continuous Fermentations, Hugh G. Lawford and Joyce D. Rousseau. Kinetics of Xylitol Fermentation by Candida Guilliermondii Grown on Rice Straw Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate, Ines C. Roberto, Ismael M. De Mancilha, and Sunao Sato. 2-Deoxyglucose as a Selective Agent for Depressed Mutants of Pichia stipitis, Hassan K. Sreenath and Thomas W. Jeffries. Optimization of Biosurfactant Lipopeptide Production from Bacillus subtilis S-499 by Plackett-Burman Design, Phillippe Jacques, Ch. Hbid, J. Destain, H. Razafindralambo, M. Paquot, E. Depauw, and Phillippe Thonart. The Effect of Glucose on High-Level Xylose Fermentations by Recombinant Zymomonas in Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations, Hugh G. Lawford and Joyce D. Rousseau. Improving the Catabolic Functions of Desiccation-Tolerant Soil Bacteria, F. Weekers, Ph. Jacques, D. Springael, M. Mergeay, L. Diels, Ph. Thonart. A High-Copy-Number Plasmid Capable of Replication in Thermophilic Cyanobacteria, M. Miyaki, H. Nagai, M. Shirai, R. Kurane, and Y. Asada. A Hybrid Neural Model of Ethanol Production by Zymomonas mobilis, A.W.S. Henriques, A.C. Costa, T.L.M. Alves, and E.L. Lima. Enzyme Production, Growth, and Adaptation of T. reerei Strains QM9414, L-27, RL-P37, and Rut C-30 to Conditioned Yellow Poplar Sawdust Hydrolysate, T.K. Hayward, J. Hamilton, D. Templeton, E. Jennings, M. Ruth, A. Tholudur, J.D. McMillan, M. Tucker, and A. Mohagheghi. L-Asparaginase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Activity Profile During Gr