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Traditional biological sensors, based on enzymatic receptors and potentiometric or amperometric transducers are well reviewed and are nowadays even included extensively in many textbooks. The editors of this volume, the 2nd in the new Springer Series on Chemical and Biosensors, have focussed exclusively on alternative types of chemical and biological sensors or sensor-like structures. Special attention is given to sensor principles based on the use of linear or non-linear impedance spectroscopy. After self-assembled monolayers have become a viable technology for the immobilization of organic molecules on electrodes and for the formation of covalently stabilized receptor layers and even more sophisticated organic nano- and microstructures, this has led to the development of numerous analytical applications of impedometric sensor methods. These new and very promising types of sensors, their technology and performance in real world applications form the main topic of this book written by leading experts from around the world.
Ultrathin Electrochemical Chemo- and Biosensors: Technology and Performance Contents Preface Part 1: Receptors Antibodies for biosensors K. Kramer and B. Hock Technical University of Muenchen, Center of Life Sciences, Chair of Cell Biology, Alte Akademie 12, D-85350 Freising, Germany 1. Introduction 2. Structure and function of antibodies 3. Production of antibodies 3.1. Antibodies obtained from sera and hybridoma cell cultures 3.2. Recombinant antibodies 3.3. Antibody library derived from a set of B cells 4. Diversification by chain shuffling 5. Antibody optimization as special case of genetic algorithms 6. Biosensors as tool in evolutionary antibody synthesis 6.1. Antibodies as receptors in biosensor designs 6.2. Limitations of antibody based biosensor designs 7. Conclusions and outlook Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition elements in sensors Karsten Haupt University of Technology of Compiègne, B.P. 20529, 60205 Compiégne cedex, France 1. Molecularly imprinted polymers 1.1. General principle of molecular imprinting 1.2. The imprinting matrix 1.2.1. Acrylic and vinyl polymers 1.2.2. Other organic polymers 1.2.3. Other imprinting matrices 1.3. Target molecules 1.4. Physical forms and preparation methods of MIPs 1.4.1. Imprinted particles - making MIPs smaller 1.4.2. Imprinting at surfaces 1.4.3. Thin imprinted polymer films 2. Applications of imprinted polymers in sensors 2.1. General considerations 2.2. General transducer types 2.3. The analyte generates the signal 2.4. The polymer generates the signal 3. Outlook Part 2. Impedometric and amperometric chemical and biologicalsensors Capacitance Affinity Biosensors Helen Berney National Microelectronics Research Centre, Prospect Row, Lee Maltings Cork, Ireland. 1 Introduction 2 Capacitance Based Transduction 2.1 The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface 2.1.1 Metal Electrodes 2.1.2 Semiconductor Electrodes 2.2 Modelling the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface 3 Capacitance Sensors 3.1 Capacitance Sensing with Interdigitated Electrodes 3.2 Capacitance Sensing at the Metal/Solution Interface 3.3 Capacitance Sensing at the Semiconductor/Solution Interface 4 Conclusions References Immunosensors and DNA-Sensors Based on Impedance Spectroscopy Eugenii Katz and Itamar Willner Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel 1. Introduction. 2. Impedance Spectroscopy – Theoretical Background. 3. Immunosensors Based on Impedance Spectroscopy. 3.1. Immunosensors based on in-plane impedance measurements between electrodes. 3.2. Immunosensors based on interfacial impedance measurements at electrodes. 4. DNA Sensors Based on Impedance Spectroscopy. 4.1. Impedimetric sensing of DNA hybridization. 4.2. Impedimetric sensing of single-base mismatches in DNA sequences. 4.3. Impedimetric sensing of DNA and RNA replication. 5. Conclusions and Perspectives. 'Voltohmmetry' – a new transducer principle for electrochemical sensors Michael J. Schöning University of Applied Sciences Aachen (Division Jülich) and Institute of Thin Films and Interfaces (Research Centre Jülich), D-52425 Jülich, Germany 1. Introduction 2. Theory and experiment 2.1 Theory of surface resistance change 2.2 Fabrication of thin-film electrodes 2.3 Instrumentation and chemicals 2.4