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Business & Management - Finance & Banking | Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks

Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks

Kumar, Sunil, Gulati, Rachita

2014, XXI, 323 p. 18 illus.

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  • Examines the effect of deregulation in the Indian banking sector during the post-reforms years, particularly on cost efficiency and total factor productivity
  • Explores the potential determinants of banking efficiency, such as profitability, asset quality, size, etc. and provides the growth behaviour of the alternative measures of banking efficiency
  • Provides a detailed analysis of the nature of returns-to-scale in the Indian banking industry
The goal of this book is to assess the efficacy of India’s financial deregulation programme by analyzing the developments in cost efficiency and total factor productivity growth across different ownership types and size classes in the banking sector over the post-deregulation years. The work also gauges the impact of inclusion or exclusion of a proxy for non-traditional activities on the cost efficiency estimates for Indian banks, and ranking of distinct ownership groups. It also investigates the hitherto neglected aspect of the nature of returns-to-scale in the Indian banking industry. In addition, the work explores the key bank-specific factors that explain the inter-bank variations in efficiency and productivity growth. Overall, the empirical results of this work allow us to ascertain whether the gradualist approach to reforming the banking system in a developing economy like India has yielded the most significant policy goal of achieving efficiency and productivity gains. The authors believe that the findings of this book could give useful policy directions and suggestions to other developing economies that have embarked on a deregulation path or are contemplating doing so.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » Banking Reforms - Cost Efficiency - Deregulation - Indian Banking System - Total Factor Productivity

Related subjects » Econometrics / Statistics - Finance & Banking - Financial Economics - Industrial Organization - Macroeconomics / Monetary Economics / Growth

Table of contents 



List of tables

List of figures

List of abbreviations




1          Introduction

1.1  Background

1.2  Motivation, objectives and significant research questions

1.3  Contribution of the book

1.4  Structure of the book


2          Banking System in India: Developments, Structural Changes and Institutional Framework

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Developments in Indian banking sector

       2.2.1 Initial formative phase: Prior to independence

       2.2.2 Foundation phase: From 1947 to early 1960s

       2.2.3 Expansion phase: From mid 1960s to late1980s

       2.2.4 Reforms phase: early 1990s onwards

2.3  Structural changes and transformations in India banking sector

       2.3.1 Increased availability of lendable resources

       2.3.2 Movements towards market-driven interest rate system

       2.3.3 Heightened competition

       2.3.4 More exposure to off-balance sheet (OBS) activities

       2.3.5 Improvement in asset quality

       2.3.6 Penetration of information technology

       2.3.7 Consolidation through mergers

2.4 Current structure of Indian banking sector

2.5 Conclusions


3          Measurement of Bank Efficiency: Analytical Methods

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Data envelopment analysis (DEA)

       3.2.1 Non-allocation DEA models

    The CCR model



    The BCC model



    Additive model

    Multiplicative model

    Non-radial slack-based measures (SBM) model

       3.2.2 Extensions of basic non-allocation DEA models

    Super-efficiency models

    Cross-efficiency models

    Non-discretionary input and output variables models

    Assurance region models      

3.2.3 Allocation DEA models

    Cost efficiency DEA models

    Revenue efficiency DEA models

    Profit efficiency DEA models

3.3 Panel data DEA models

       3.3.1 Window analysis

       3.3.2 Malmquist productivity index (MPI)

    A graphical conceptualization Output-oriented framework

              Input-oriented framework

    DEA-based estimation of Malmquist productivity index

3.4 Strengths, limitations, basic requirements and outcomes of DEA

       3.4.1 Strengths and limitations

       3.4.2 Basic requirements

       3.4.3 Outcomes

3.5 Free disposal hull (FDH) analysis

3.6 Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)

       3.6.1 Panel data framework

   Time-invariant efficiency models

         Fixed-effects model

         Random-effects model

   Time-variant efficiency models

       3.6.2 Stochastic distance functions

       3.6.3 Marrying DEA with SFA

3.7 Other parametric approaches

       3.7.1 Distribution free approach (DFA)

       3.7.2 Thick frontier analysis (TFA)

       3.7.3 Recursive thick frontier analysis (RTFA) 

3.8 Comparison of DEA and SFA

3.9 Conclusions


4          A Survey of Empirical Literature on Bank Efficiency

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Deregulation and bank efficiency

      4.2.1 International experience

      4.2.2 Indian experience

4.3 Bank ownership and efficiency

      4.3.1 International experience

      4.3.2 Indian experience

4.4 Cross-country efficiency comparisons

4.5 Mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and bank efficiency

4.6 Major issues in bank efficiency analyses

      4.6.1 Selection of inputs and outputs

      4.6.2 Choice of estimation methodology

4.7 Conclusions




5          Relevance of Non-traditional Activities on the Efficiency of Indian Banks

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Non-traditional activities in Indian banking industry

5.3 Non-traditional activities and efficiency of banks: some empirical evidences

5.4 Methodological framework

      5.4.1 Cost efficiency and its components: concept and measurement approaches

      5.4.2 DEA models

5.5 Data and measurement of input and output variables

5.6 Empirical results

      5.6.1 Non-traditional activities and bank efficiency

      5.6.2 Non-traditional activities and ranking of individual banks

      5.6.3 Non-traditional activities and efficiency of ownership groups

      5.6.4 Non-traditional activities and ranking of ownership groups

5.7 Conclusions


6          Financial Deregulation in the Indian Banking Industry: Has it improved cost efficiency?

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Deregulation and cost efficiency: Relevant literature review

6.3 Methodological framework

6.4 Data and measurement of input and output variables

6.5 Empirical results

     6.5.1 Estimation strategy

     6.5.2 Trends in cost (in)efficiency at industry level

     6.5.3 Comparison of efficiency across distinct ownership groups

     6.5.4 Comparison of efficiency in domestic and foreign banks

     6.5.5 Bank size and efficiency

6.5.6 Returns-to-scale

     6.5.7 Factors explaining inter-bank variations in efficiency measures

6.6 Conclusions


7          Sources of Productivity Gains in Indian Banking Industry: Is it Efficiency Improvement or Technological Progress?

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Relevant literature review

7.2.1 Deregulation and productivity change: International experience

7.2.2 Deregulation and productivity change: Indian experience

7.3 Methodological framework

7.4 Database, input-output variables and empirical setting for TFP measurement

7.5 Empirical results

      7.5.1 Level of technical efficiency

      7.5.2 TFP growth in Indian banking industry

7.5.3 TFP growth across distinct ownership groups

      7.5.4 TFP growth in domestic and foreign banks

      7.5.5 TFP growth across distinct size classes

      7.5.6 Technological innovators

      7.5.7 Factors affecting TFP growth

7.6 Conclusions


8          Major conclusions, policy implications and some areas for future research

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Major conclusions

8.3 Policy implications

8.4 Some areas for future research






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