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Biomedical Sciences - Pharmacology & Toxicology | Journal of Natural Medicines

Journal of Natural Medicines

Journal of Natural Medicines

Chief Editor: Hisashi Matsuda

ISSN: 1340-3443 (print version)
ISSN: 1861-0293 (electronic version)

Journal no. 11418

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Instructions for Authors

“Journal of Natural Medicines” is pleased to announce the launch of its new online manuscript submission and tracking system. This new system makes it possible for authors to submit manuscripts via the Internet, provides online peer review services, and tracks manuscripts through the review process. Key features include automatic conversion of authors’ submissions into PDF format as well as supporting submissions in various file formats and special characters. Authors are requested to use Editorial Manager for all submissions of new manuscripts.

Editorial policy 

Before preparation of your manuscript, read the 'Instructions for Authors' carefully. We will not accept manuscripts that do not comply with these instructions.
The Journal of Natural Medicines invites papers that make a significant contribution to the knowledge and understanding of naturally occurring medicines and their related foods and cosmetics, including identification and structure elucidation of natural products, biosynthesis, biotechnology, and pharmacology of herbs, natural products, and Kampo formulas. Papers are also published concerning chemical and botanical identification of herbs or their products where such information contributes to the overall safety of plant-based medicines currently and/or formerly in use. Submission of a paper implies that it has been approved by all the named authors, that it has not been published before, and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
Acceptance of papers will be decided by the Editorial Board after examination by at least two referees. Manuscripts that require revision and/or correction and/or condensation will be returned to the authors with comments specifying alterations from the referees and/or the Editorial Board.
The following types of papers may be submitted. (i) Original Papers: Original Papers are the usual form of publication of this journal describing original experimental results. (ii) Notes (up to 4 printed pages): Notes are brief articles reporting new facts and/or valuable data. (iii) Rapid Communications (up to 3 printed pages): These are short preliminary reports of novel and significant findings that merit urgent publication. Full details of the Rapid Communication may be published later as a comprehensive original paper, in this or another journal. An explanatory statement is required for urgent publication. (iv) Reviews (up to 12 printed pages): Reviews covering recent discoveries or topics of current interest are generally invited. (v) Mini-Reviews (up to 6 printed pages): These provide a short overview of a particular subject and are also generally invited. In the case of a non-invited Review or Mini-Review, a short summary describing the outline should be sent to the Chief Editor for approval before submitting a manuscript. (vi) Natural Resource Letters (up to 6 printed pages): Natural Resource Letters are reports on biological screening data, field observations, market surveys, quality evaluation or quantitative methods of crude drugs, etc., which may contribute to the scientific knowledge of the readers.
  • Documentation of experimental biological materials.
    Use the correct scientific name and indicate who identified the biological materials. The herbarium deposit site and voucher number should be recorded. Authors who purchase herbal materials from companies must make provision for their deposit in a herbarium.
  • Pharmacological investigations of extracts require detailed extract characterization.
    This includes botanical characterization of plant material(s), solvent(s), duration and temperature of extraction, plus other method(s) used for preparation(s). A chromatographic (e.g., HPLC profile recorded at different wavelengths) or chemical characterization (quantities of typical constituents) must be presented. The investigation must clearly indicate a dose/activity dependence in comparison with a reference compound (positive control) together with the appropriate statistics.
  • Ethical Standards
    Manuscripts that show a lack of ethical consideration for human subjects or experimental animals will not be accepted for publication.
    For animal experiments, authors must indicate in the manuscript that the experimental procedures were approved by the appropriate committee (e.g., Experimental Animal Research Committee) at the institute or university.
  • Other Rules of the Editorial Committee
    The following manuscripts are not currently accepted as Original Papers.
    ・Preliminary screening tests of extracts, such as
    a) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening tests of extracts, including essential oils.
    b) Antioxidant or radical scavenging in vitro tests.
    ・Pharmacological studies of extracts and their fractions without an HPLC profile.
    ・Reports of preliminary quantitative analyses using common HPLC methods.
    ・Clinical studies and studies of safety and toxicity in experimental animals. The editorial committee recommends submitting such manuscripts to another journal.
  • Chief Editor: Hisashi Matsuda
    E-mail: matsuda@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp

Page Charges 

The following charges are to be paid within one month after publication of a paper.
(i) Handling charges: JPY 4,000 per printed page.
(ii) Charges for excess pages in Notes, Rapid Communications and Natural Resource Letters: JPY 8,000 per printed page in addition to the handling charges.

Online Submission 

Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please log directly onto the link below and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

Legal requirements 

The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer, that the rights of third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Manuscript preparation 

Manuscripts must be written in English using Times font and typed in double-line spacing with 3-cm margins; pages should be numbered. Authors whose first language is not English are urged to have their manuscript read by a colleague who is a native English speaker and is familiar with their field of work before submitting the paper.
Manuscripts with extensive English language deficiencies will be returned to the author without the full reviewing process.
  • Documentation of experimental biological materials.
    Use the correct scientific name and indicate who identified the biological materials. The herbarium deposit site and voucher number should be recorded. Authors who purchase herbal materials from companies must make provision for their deposit in a herbarium.
  • Pharmacological investigations of extracts require detailed extract characterization.
    This includes botanical characterization of plant material(s), solvent(s), duration and temperature of extraction, plus other method(s) used for preparation(s). A chromatographic (e.g., HPLC profile recorded at different wavelengths) or chemical characterization (quantities of typical constituents) must be presented. The investigation must clearly indicate a dose/activity dependence in comparison with a reference compound (positive control) together with the appropriate statistics.
The manuscript should be arranged as follows:
  • Title page (including an article title, name(s) of author(s), affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s), e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author.)
  • Abstract (200-250 words)
  • Four to six keywords
Text of the paper: Introduction; main text (divided into sections, if appropriate); Acknowledgments; References; tables; figure legends
  • Abbreviations. Abbreviations must be spelled out in full at their initial appearance in the abstract and main text, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be employed.
    However, the following need not be defined : AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate), cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate), CD (circular dichroism), cDNA (complementary DNA), CoA (coenzyme A), COSY (correlated spectroscopy), DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), ED50 (50% effective dose), EI-MS (electron ionization mass spectrometry), FAB-MS (fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry), FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), HMBC (heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity), HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence), HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography), HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum coherence), IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 50%), IR (infrared), LD50 (50% lethal dose), mRNA (messenger RNA), MS (mass spectrum), NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, as 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR), NOE (nuclear Overhauser effect), NOESY (nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy), ORD (optical rotatory dispersion), P450 (as in cytochrome P450), RNA (ribonucleic acid), rRNA (ribosomal RNA), TLC (thin-layer chromatography), tRNA (transfer RNA), UV (ultraviolet).
  • Units. The following units should be used: length (m, cm, mm, μm, nm, Å), mass (kg, g, mg, μg, ng, pg, mol, mmol), volume (l, ml, μl), time (s, min, h, d), temperature (°C, K), radiation (Bq, Ci, dpm, Gy, rad), concentration (M, mM, mol/l, mmol/l, mg/ml, μg/ml, %, %(v/v), % (w/v), ppm, ppb).
  • Spectral and elemental analysis data. Please report spectral and elemental analysis data in the following format, 1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ:1.25 (3H, d, J=7.0 Hz), 3.55 (1H, q, J=7.0 Hz), 6.70 (1H, m). 13C-NMR (CDCl3) δ:20.9 (q), 71.5 (d), 169.9 (s). IR (KBr) cm-1: 1720, 1050, 910. UV λmax(H2O) nm (log ε):280 (3.25). MS m/z :332 (M+), 180, 168. HRFAB-MS m/z:332.1258 (Calcd for C18H20O6: 332.1259). [α]D23—74.5° (c 1.0, MeOH). Anal. Calcd for C19H21NO3:C, 73.29; H, 6.80; N, 4.50. Found: C, 73.30; H, 6.88; N, 4.65.
  • Nomenclature. The nomenclature of chemical compounds should be in accordance with the nomenclature rules formulated by IUPAC. Alternatively, naming may conform to the nomenclature in the index of Chemical Abstracts or the Ring Index.
  • X-ray crystal structure analyses. When structure determination by X-ray crystallographic analysis is a central theme of the paper, the data required for registration with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Base (CCDB) should be attached as supplementary material. Although this does not apply in cases where crystallographic analysis plays only a supplementary role, crystal data (unit cell parameters, space group, Z density) and R-factor should still be noted. Atomic coordinates, bond lengths and angles, thermal parameters, and torsion angles should be presented when they are important for the issues addressed in the paper. When papers have been accepted, the authors are advised to register the data with CCDB.


The list of References should include only works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications should be mentioned only in the text. If available, the DOI can be added at the end of the reference in question.
References should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text and be listed in numerical order. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. References should be styled as follows, with correct punctuation:
1. Kuroyanagi M, Umehara K, Hayashi T, Hirayama Y (2002) Cell differentiation inducers and antiandrogenic active compounds from zingiberis rhizoma. Nat Med 56:47–50
2. Chen W, Punja Z (2002) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of American ginseng with a rice chitinase gene. Plant Cell Rep 20:1039–1045 DOI 10.1007/s00299-002-0446-z
3. Tsukaya H, Iokawa Y, Kondo M, Ohba H (2005) Large-scale general collection of wild-plant DNA in Mustang, Nepal. J Plant Res DOI 10.1007/s10265-005-0196-4
4. Capasso F, Gaginella TS, Grandolini G., Izzo AA (2003) Phytotherapy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York
5. Bauer BA (2003) Herbal therapy and the elderly. In: Cherniack P, Cherniack N (eds) Alternative medicine for the elderly. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 111–132

Tables and figures 

All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text, and each should be numbered consecutively throughout with arabic numerals. All artwork that is provided must be of a size that will fit within the width of single or double columns (single-column width is 8.4 cm; double-column width is 17.4 cm). Single-column artwork is strongly recommended. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations.
Tables must be numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. They should have a title explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data).
Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Figure parts should be identified by lowercase roman letters (a, b, etc.). If illustrations are supplied with uppercase labeling, lowercase letters will still be used in the figure legends and citations.
Figure legends must be brief, self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. The legends should be placed at the end of the text.
All figures should be submitted as separate files and should not be integrated within the text. The preferred figure formats are EPS (Encapsulated Postscript) for vector graphics exported from a drawing program and TIFF for halftone illustrations. EPS files must always contain a preview in TIFF of the figure. Microsoft PowerPoint files and illustrations embedded in Microsoft Word documents are not acceptable. The file name should include the figure number.
  • Line drawings. Inscriptions should be legible, with initial capital letters and appropriately scaled to the size of the drawing. Scanned line drawings should be digitized with a resolution of 800 dpi relative to the final figure size.
  • Halftone illustrations (black and white and color). Magnification should be indicated by scale bars. For scanned halftone illustrations, a resolution of 300 dpi is usually sufficient.
  • Color illustrations should be saved as RGB (8 bits per channel) in TIFF format.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards 

Manuscripts that reveal a lack of ethical consideration for human subjects or experimental animals will not be accepted for publication. All clinical research using human subjects or materials should be conducted in accordance with the Recommendations from the Declaration of Helsinki. For animal experiments, authors should follow the experimental animal guidelines of their institution as well as the appropriate government guidelines, such as those published by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Authors must also indicate in the manuscript that the experimental procedures were approved by the appropriate committee (e.g., Experimental Animal Research Committee) at their institute or university.

Electronic Supplementary Material 

Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM) for a paper will be published in the electronic edition of this journal provided the material is:
  • submitted in electronic form together with the manuscript
  • accepted after peer review
ESM may consist of:
information that cannot be printed: animations, video clips, sound recordings (use QuickTime, .avi, .mpeg, animated GIFs, or any other common file format); information that is more convenient in electronic form: sequences, spectral data, etc.; large quantities of original data that relate to the paper, e.g., additional tables, large numbers of illustrations (color and black & white), etc.
Legends must be brief, self-sufficient explanations of the ESM. ESM is to be numbered and referred to as S1, S2, etc.
After acceptance for publication, ESM will be published as received from the author in the online version only. Reference will be given in the printed version.

Research Data Policy 

The journal encourages authors, where possible and applicable, to deposit data that support the findings of their research in a public repository. Authors and editors who do not have a preferred repository should consult Springer Nature’s list of repositories and research data policy.
General repositories - for all types of research data - such as figshare and Dryad may also be used.
Datasets that are assigned digital object identifiers (DOIs) by a data repository may be cited in the reference list. Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite: authors, title, publisher (repository name), identifier.
Springer Nature provides a research data policy support service for authors and editors, which can be contacted at researchdata@springernature.com.
This service provides advice on research data policy compliance and on finding research data repositories. It is independent of journal, book and conference proceedings editorial offices and does not advise on specific manuscripts.

After acceptance 

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs. You will also receive a separate e-mail for ordering offprints and printing of figures in color.
  • Open Choice. In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular “subscription-based” article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer's online platform SpringerLink. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles.
  • Copyright transfer. Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, they agree to the Springer Open Choice Licence.
  • Offprints. Offprints can be ordered by the corresponding author.
  • Color illustrations. Online publication of color illustrations is free of charge. For color in the print version, authors will be expected to make a contribution towards the extra costs.Otherwise the figures will be printed in black and white. Please note that, in such cases, it is authors’ responsibility to prepare figures to be illustrative enough to convey the necessary information even after they are converted into black and white.
  • Proof reading. Authors are informed by e-mail that a temporary URL has been created from which they can obtain their proofs. Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title, and authorship, as well as replacement of figures, are not allowed without the approval of the responsible editor. In such a case the Editorial Office should be contacted before the proofs are returned to the publisher. After online publication, corrections can be made only in exceptional cases and in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the paper.
  • Online First. Papers will be published online about one week after receipt of the corrected proofs. Papers published online can be cited by their DOI immediately. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Open Choice 

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink.

Copyright and license term – CC BY

Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, the author(s) agree to publish the article under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Date of issue 

The journal will be issued on 10th of January, April, July, and October each year.
(Revised on 7 October 2011)

For authors and editors

  • Journal Citation Reports®
    2016 Impact Factor
  • 1.982
  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope


    The Journal of Natural Medicines is an international journal publishing original research in naturally occurring medicines and their related foods and cosmetics. It covers

    chemistry of natural products
    biochemistry of medicinal plants
    pharmacology of natural products and herbs, including Kampo formulas and traditional herbs
    botanical anatomy
    cultivation of medicinal plants.

    The journal accepts Original Papers, Notes, Rapid Communications and Natural Resource Letters. Reviews and Mini-Reviews are generally invited.

    Of the papers published in each volume of the Journal of Natural Medicines, approximately three will be chosen by members of the Selection Committee as the Journal of Natural Medicines Award.

  • Submit Online
  • Open Choice - Your Way to Open Access
  • Instructions for Authors

    Instructions for Authors


  • English Language Editing

    English Language Editing


  • Author Academy: Training for Authors
  • Copyright Information

    Copyright Information


    Copyright Information

    For Authors

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to Springer (respective to owner if other than Springer) becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

    The copyright assignment includes without limitation the exclusive, assignable and sublicensable right, unlimited in time and territory, to reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, make available and store the article, including abstracts thereof, in all forms of media of expression now known or developed in the future, including pre- and reprints, translations, photographic reproductions and microform. Springer may use the article in whole or in part in electronic form, such as use in databases or data networks for display, print or download to stationary or portable devices. This includes interactive and multimedia use and the right to alter the article to the extent necessary for such use.

    Authors may self-archive the Author's accepted manuscript of their articles on their own websites. Authors may also deposit this version of the article in any repository, provided it is only made publicly available 12 months after official publication or later. He/she may not use the publisher's version (the final article), which is posted on SpringerLink and other Springer websites, for the purpose of self-archiving or deposit. Furthermore, the Author may only post his/her version provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication and a link is inserted to the published article on Springer's website. The link must be accompanied by the following text: "The final publication is available at link.springer.com".

    Prior versions of the article published on non-commercial pre-print servers like arXiv.org can remain on these servers and/or can be updated with Author's accepted version. The final published version (in pdf or html/xml format) cannot be used for this purpose. Acknowledgement needs to be given to the final publication and a link must be inserted to the published article on Springer's website, accompanied by the text "The final publication is available at link.springer.com". Author retains the right to use his/her article for his/her further scientific career by including the final published journal article in other publications such as dissertations and postdoctoral qualifications provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication.

    Author is requested to use the appropriate DOI for the article. Articles disseminated via link.springer.com are indexed, abstracted and referenced by many abstracting and information services, bibliographic networks, subscription agencies, library networks, and consortia.

    For Readers

    While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

    All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g., as offprints), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic data bases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publisher (respective the copyright owner if other than Springer). The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.

    Springer has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service to offer a variety of options for reusing Springer content. For permission to reuse our content please locate the material that you wish to use on link.springer.com or on springerimages.com and click on the permissions link or go to copyright.com, then enter the title of the publication that you wish to use. For assistance in placing a permission request, Copyright Clearance Center can be connected directly via phone: +1-855-239-3415, fax: +1-978-646-8600, or e-mail: info@copyright.com.

    © The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan

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