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Biomedical Sciences - Pharmacology & Toxicology | Pharmaceutical Research

Pharmaceutical Research

Pharmaceutical Research

An Official Journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

Editor-in-Chief: Peter W. Swaan

ISSN: 0724-8741 (print version)
ISSN: 1573-904X (electronic version)

Journal no. 11095

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Instructions for Authors

Pharmaceutical Research



General  

If you are interested in submitting a paper to Pharmaceutical Research, please first review the following information.

AIM & SCOPE 

Pharmaceutical Research, an official journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, is committed to publishing novel research that is innovative, mechanism-based, hypothesis-driven, and supported by sound experimental design, methodology, and data interpretation. Pharmaceutical Research publishes articles containing novel research concepts, ideas, and findings of broad interest to the scientific community in drug discovery, clinical testing, and regulatory evaluation.

ARTICLE TYPES 

Research Papers are the foundation of Pharmaceutical Research. Priority is given to papers focusing on current areas of interest, which include the following:
Transport/Metabolism: Regulation of transporters and enzymes, disease states, SNPs, transporter genomics/genomics, protein structure and function, transporter-/enzyme-mediated toxicity, drug-drug interactions, preclinical-to-clinical translation.
Drug Delivery and Targeting: Multifunctional nanosystems; stimuli-responsive, image-guided, and organelle-targeted delivery systems; laser lithography; molecular imprinting; electrospinning; supercritical fluid technology; quantification in organelles; noninvasive monitoring; new measures for quantifying delivery system interactions with biological tissues; and whole animal quantification of cell/organelle targeting; identification and validation of new mechanisms for uptake, efflux, and transcytosis; and identification of new clearance mechanisms.
Pharmacology, Genomics, and Biotechnology: Genomics, proteomics, and metabolonomics of new/novel therapeutic agents; biotechnology of SiRNA, microRNAs, and new antibodies.
Modeling/PK/PD/Simulations: Increased mechanistic understanding of PK/PD models, novel QSAR, QSPR on ADME/Tox properties, improving PK/PD prediction-method development.
Biopharmaceutics: Advancing physio-chemical models of drug and formulation performance with emphasis on molecular details of physiology and chemical processes, contributing to mechanistic interpretation of physiological and chemical process models, well-developed examples of novel mechanistic model building and validation of molecular details.
Preformulation: Application of new physical methods with the goal of uncovering new molecular details of condensed media, molecular-based studies of the control of surface chemistry of solid particles in the micrometer and nanometer range, elucidation of molecular mechanisms of solubilization of poorly-soluble molecules from dispersed systems, derivation, evaluation and validation new physicochemical models of condensed state material, evaluation and validation of new physicochemical models of condensed state materials with emphasis on molecular details, molecular-level evaluation and consequences of water-drug interactions.
Formulation: Application of new formulation approaches with relevant evaluation of proposed mechanisms, molecular evaluation of novel formulation excipients in biologically-relevant in vivo models, focus on the molecular details of formulation approaches of drug targeting, demonstration of relevant and validated IVIVC correlations based on molecular characteristics of formation.
Papers that are merely descriptive or confirmatory in nature, are poorly written, lack a hypothesis, fail to offer new insights, or contain conclusions that are not supported by data are unlikely to be accepted for publication in Pharmaceutical Research.
In addition to research papers, Pharmaceutical Research also publishes Expert Reviews, Perspectives, and Commentaries by invitation or consent of the Expert Review Editor, Joseph Nicolazzo
Letters to the Editor provide a forum for scientists to exchange views on work previously published in Pharmaceutical Research. Periodically, authors are invited to submit papers on highly relevant and interesting topics to be included in Theme Issues.

MANUSCRIPT GUIDELINES 

LENGTH

For Research Papers and Expert Reviews, there is no limit to the number of pages, words, tables, or figures. Nevertheless, the manuscript presentation must be concise, and research papers should contain no more than approximately 40 references.
Commentaries should be limited to 1,500 words, less than ten references, and no more than one table or figure.
Perspectives should be limited to 2,500 words, less than 20 references, and no more than a total of two tables and/or figures.
FORMAT
All manuscripts must be double-spaced. Acceptable file formats include .doc, .docx, .rtf, and .dvi. Please do not upload .pdf files. Your manuscript will be converted to a .pdf file by our submission management program, Editorial Manager.
COMPONENTS
Cover Letter
Each manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter addressed to the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Peter Swaan, and signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors. The cover letter should explicitly state that the manuscript has not been previously published in any language anywhere and that it is not under simultaneous consideration by another journal. The cover letter should also disclose if the manuscript has been previously rejected either by Pharmaceutical Research or another journal and should include a justification for resubmission. Authors may also use the cover letter to explain why the manuscript is suitable for publication in Pharmaceutical Research or to communicate any additional information of relevance.

Title Page 

The title page should include the title of the article, authors’ full first and last names (no degrees), and affiliations, and suggested running head (of less than 50 characters, including spaces). Authors’ affiliations should include the department, institution (usually university or company), city, and state (or nation) and should be included as a footnote to the authors’ name. Please indicate the corresponding author designated to receive all communications and review proofs, and provide his/her complete mailing address, office/cellular telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.
Abstract
Research Papers require a structured abstract of 200 words or less arranged under the following headings: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions.
Sample structured abstract:
  • Purpose: The purpose of a structured abstract is to assist the authors in organizing their thoughts so as to highlight their work as well as to aid the readers to quickly grasp the essence of the paper
    Methods: The abstract is organized into four distinct sections: Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.
    Results: A more informative abstract results.
    Conclusions: Requiring a structured abstract is a sound idea.
Expert Reviews and Perspectives also require an abstract, but it need not be structured. An abstract is not required of Commentaries or Letters to the Editor.
Keywords
For all manuscripts, please provide a list of no more than 5 keywords.

Main Text 

Research Papers should be organized as follows: Abbreviations, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, References. Combining Results and Discussion is discouraged. Please avoid using more than three levels of headings.
Acknowledgments
All acknowledgments, including those for financial support, should be listed in a section to precede the References. Authors of manuscripts submitted to Pharmaceutical Research are requested to state the source of all funding that enabled the described research to be undertaken.
Abbreviations
Use abbreviations sparingly. Provide an Abbreviations section, a list of all nonstandard abbreviations, before the Introduction section. Use the metric system for all measurements. Express metric abbreviations in lowercase letters without periods (cm, ml, sec). Define all symbols used in equations and formulas. When symbols are used extensively, include a list of all symbols in the notation section.

References 

References should conform to Vancouver Style (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors). Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those in the Bibliographic Guide for Editors and Authors (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.).
References to unpublished peer-reviews, personal communications, including conference abstracts, and papers in preparation or in review, cannot be listed, but can be notated parenthetically in the text.
Examples:
1. Kohane DS, Anderson DG, Yu C, Langer R. pH triggered release of macromolecules from spraydried polymethacrylate microparticles. Pharm Res. 2003;20(10):1533-1538. [Journal Article]
2. Swarbrick J, Boylan JC. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2001. [Book]
3. Lee VHL. Ocular epithelial models. In: Borchardt RT, Smith PL, Wilson G, editors. Models for assessing drug absorption and metabolism. New York: Plenum; 1996. p. 425-436. [Contribution to a Book]
4. Weisstein EW. Molecular orbital theory. Eric Weisstein's World of Science.; 2003 December 15. Available from: http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/chemistry/MolecularOrbital-Theory.html. [Website]

Tables 

Tables should be numbered (with Roman numerals) and referred to by number in the text. Center the title above the table, and type explanatory footnotes (indicated by superscript lowercase letters) below the table.
Figures
Figures (including photographs, drawings, diagrams, and charts) are to be numbered in one consecutive series of Arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text. The captions for illustrations should be separated from the text, and collated in a separate section called “Legend to Figures.” Electronic artwork should be in .tif, .eps, or .jpg format (1200 dpi for line and 300 dpi for half-tones and gray-scale art).
Pharmaceutical Research offers authors free color figures in both the online and print versions. For additional information on artwork guidelines, go to http://www.springer.com/authors/manuscript+guidelines?SGWID=0-40162-12-331200-0.
Footnotes
Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, footnotes should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and should be typed at the bottom of the page to which they refer. Place a line above the footnote, so that it is set off from the text. Use the appropriate superscript numeral for citation in the text.
Appendices and Supplementary Material
Authors who wish to publish electronic supplementary material to their article (Excel files, images, audio/video files) may submit these files along with the manuscript via our online submission system. For more information, go to http://www.springer.com/authors/manuscript+guidelines?SGWID=0-40162-12-331200-0.

SUBMISSION & REVIEW PROCESS 

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

Manuscripts should be submitted online to http://www.editorialmanager.com/pharmres. This web-based manuscript management system offers easy and straightforward login and submission procedures. It also allows you to track the progress of manuscript review in real time. After submitting a manuscript, you will need to review the converted PDF to ensure that all text, formulas, figures, and tables have been converted without errors. The manuscript will not be officially submitted to the journal until you have reviewed and approved the PDF.
If you are submitting an invited Expert Review, Commentary, Perspective, or Theme Issue manuscript, it is important that you do so through the invitations menu. After logging in as an author, click on “My Accepted Invitations” under the Invited Submissions head, then click “Submit Invited Manuscript” under the Action/Action Links menu for the theme issue invitation, select the appropriate theme issue title from the Article Type drop-down menu, and proceed through the submission process according to the system’s prompts.
SCREENING
After you have approved the PDF of your manuscript, it will be screened to ensure that all components have been submitted. Screened manuscripts then undergo an initial review, during which the Editor-in-Chief will either reject the manuscript if its quality and content are not in line with the aims of Pharmaceutical Research, or pass it along to an appropriate editor for further review. Papers that may not be granted a full review include, but are not limited to, those that are routine, are descriptive, are deficient in presentation, offer no insight, or appeal to a specialty audience.
REVIEW
Before a publication decision is made, your manuscript will be reviewed by at least two independent, anonymous peers in the field, in addition to the assigned editor. During the initial submission of your manuscript, you have the opportunity to suggest appropriate reviewers for your manuscript, as well as to list any to whom you are opposed. This phase of the review process typically takes about three to four weeks to complete.
DECISION
The editor will use the reviewers’ comments and recommendations to assist him or her in making a publication decision for your manuscript. At this point, the manuscript may be rejected, be accepted as is, or require minor or major revisions. In all cases, you may have access to the reviewers’ comments.
REVISION
If the editor returns your manuscript with the request for minor or major revisions, you will have 30 days to revise and return your manuscript. If you need longer than the 30 days to conduct additional research, you must contact your editor immediately in order to be granted an extension. You will be provided with reviewers’ comments and suggestions for revision in order to help you improve your manuscript.
After your revised manuscript is submitted, the editor and/or reviewers will review it again, and a new publication decision will be rendered. Revised manuscripts are not guaranteed acceptance; your revised manuscript may be rejected, be accepted, or require additional revisions.
PROOFS
If your paper is accepted, approximately two weeks later, you will receive an email from the production department alerting you that your page proofs are ready to be reviewed. Follow the instructions in this email to access your proofs and submit any changes. During this stage, you should proofread your paper for any typos, verify that all authors’ names and affiliations are accurate and spelled correctly, and confirm that all tables, figures, and formulas have been properly formatted. Authors are responsible for all statements in their work, including changes made by the copyeditor after a manuscript is accepted, so please review your proofs carefully.
ONLINE FIRST
All articles published in the journal will follow the Springer Online First production workflow, enabling publication on the SpringerLink website after receipt of author corrections to page proofs.
PRINT
Finally, accepted papers will appear in a print issue of Pharmaceutical Research.

TERMS OF MANUSCRIPT CONSIDERATION 

FULL DISCLOSURE

Each manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all the authors. The cover letter should explicitly state that the manuscript has not been previously published in any language anywhere and that it is not under simultaneous consideration by another journal. Moreover, Pharmaceutical Research will not publish any manuscript unless the chemical structures of all compounds are fully disclosed, either by reference to prior work providing such data or by enclosure of such data in the manuscript.
COPYRIGHT TRANSFER
Authors with accepted papers may choose to transfer copyright to Springer or participate in Open Choice. For more information about Open Choice, go to http://www.springer.com/open+access/open+choice?SGWID=0-40359-0-0-0.
ETHICS IN ANIMAL AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS
Investigations using experimental animals must state in the Methods section that the research adhered to the ’’Principles of Laboratory Animal Care’’ (NIH publication #85-23, revised in 1985). Investigation with human subjects must state in the Methods section that the research followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki promulgated in 1964 and was approved by the institutional human experimentation committee or equivalent, and that informed consent was obtained.
SPRINGER PUBLISHING POLICIES
For information about the publisher’s policies, go to http://www.springer.com/authors/journal+authors?SGWID=0-154202-0-0-0.
PERMISSIONS
For information on obtaining permissions to reproduce content originally published in Pharmaceutical Research, go to http://www.springer.com/rights?SGWID=0-122-0-0-0.

CONTACT INFORMATION 

If, after reviewing this document, you have any additional questions, please contact
Kathy Frazier
Editorial coordinator
Pharmaceutical Research
Tel. 410-706-7947
E-mail: kfrazier@rx.umaryland.edu

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors 

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:
  • The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
  • The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
  • A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).
  • No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions
  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
    Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
  • Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.
  • Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.
  • Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the role of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.
  • Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.
  • Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded.
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
  • If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
  • If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted" and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.
  • The author’s institution may be informed.

Compliance with Ethical Standards 

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent
Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest 

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could have direct or potential influence or impart bias on the work. Although an author may not feel there is any conflict, disclosure of relationships and interests provides a more complete and transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of a real or perceived conflicts of interest is a perspective to which the readers are entitled. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors. Examples of forms can be found
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals 

1) Statement of human rights

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that the independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.
The following statements should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
For retrospective studies, please add the following sentence:
“For this type of study formal consent is not required.”

2) Statement on the welfare of animals

The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals have been followed, and that the studies have been approved by a research ethics committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists).
For studies with animals, the following statement should be included in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: “All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.”
If applicable (where such a committee exists): “All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.”
If articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors, please select one of the following statements:
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.”
“This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.”

Informed consent 

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
The following statement should be included:
Informed consent: “Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.”
If identifying information about participants is available in the article, the following statement should be included:
“Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.”

English Language Support 

For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider:
  • Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity.
  • Visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English.
  • Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Two such services are provided by our affiliates Nature Research Editing Service and American Journal Experts.
Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in this journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
If your manuscript is accepted it will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style before publication.

For authors and editors


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  • Aims and Scope

    Aims and Scope

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    Pharmaceutical Research, an official journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, is committed to publishing novel research that is mechanism-based, hypothesis-driven and addresses significant issues in drug discovery, development and regulation. Current areas of interest include, but are not limited to:

    • (pre)formulation engineering and processing
    • computational biopharmaceutics
    • drug delivery and targeting
    • molecular biopharmaceutics and drug disposition (including cellular and molecular pharmacology)
    • pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics

    Research may involve nonclinical and clinical studies, and utilize both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Studies on small drug molecules, pharmaceutical solid materials (including biomaterials, polymers and nanoparticles) biotechnology products (including genes, peptides, proteins and vaccines), and genetically engineered cells are welcome.

    Pharmaceutical Research publishes twelve issues a year.

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    Copyright Information

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    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

    Author warrants (i) that he/she is the sole owner or has been authorized by any additional copyright owner to assign the right, (ii) that the article does not infringe any third party rights and no license from or payments to a third party is required to publish the article and (iii) that the article has not been previously published or licensed. The author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. Transfer of copyright to Springer (respective to owner if other than Springer) becomes effective if and when a Copyright Transfer Statement is signed or transferred electronically by the corresponding author. After submission of the Copyright Transfer Statement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted by Springer.

    The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is assigned for good and valuable consideration to Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

    The copyright assignment includes without limitation the exclusive, assignable and sublicensable right, unlimited in time and territory, to reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, make available and store the article, including abstracts thereof, in all forms of media of expression now known or developed in the future, including pre- and reprints, translations, photographic reproductions and microform. Springer may use the article in whole or in part in electronic form, such as use in databases or data networks for display, print or download to stationary or portable devices. This includes interactive and multimedia use and the right to alter the article to the extent necessary for such use.

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    For Readers

    While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.

    All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g., as offprints), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic data bases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publisher (respective the copyright owner if other than Springer). The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.

    Springer has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service to offer a variety of options for reusing Springer content. For permission to reuse our content please locate the material that you wish to use on link.springer.com or on springerimages.com and click on the permissions link or go to copyright.com, then enter the title of the publication that you wish to use. For assistance in placing a permission request, Copyright Clearance Center can be connected directly via phone: +1-855-239-3415, fax: +1-978-646-8600, or e-mail: info@copyright.com.


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