Myelinated Fibers and Saltatory Conduction in the Shrimp
The Fastest Impulse Conduction in the Animal Kingdom
Xu, Ke, Terakawa, Susumu
2013, XVIII, 110 p. 50 illus.
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Unveils the mysterious structure of nerve fibers of the shrimp
Demonstrates the uniqueness of shrimp nerve fibers with fastest conduction velocity in the animal kingdom
Compares distant branches of the evolutionary tree with different morphogenesis but similar outcome
In 1961, neurobiologists found that the conduction velocity of the nerve impulse in the giant nerve fiber of the Penaeus shrimp abdominal nerve cord was over 200 m/s, the highest speed of information transmission ever observed in the animal kingdom. The peculiar myelin sheath with its unique nodal structure and the electrical properties of the nerve fibers of the shrimp have continued to be investigated for a quarter of century and are now fully described in this book. The investigation dispels the commonly held belief that the fastest recorded impulse conduction is about 120 m/s in the thickest vertebrate myelinated nerve fibers. In the shrimp, researchers found a completely novel type of functional node in the giant fiber which they designated as the fenestration node. In portions of the myelinated fiber, the fenestration node furnished the sites of excitation. Also discovered was a new strategy for increasing impulse conduction in the shrimp. The book includes a section on the formation of the fenestration node and the discovery of a strategy that allows the shrimp to escape its predators by an action of the fastest velocity. The data presented in this volume on the myelin sheath of invertebrates present a new direction for this field and a rich source of information for neurobiologists worldwide.
Content Level »Research
Keywords »Action potential - Axon - Fenestration node - Ion channel - Myelin sheath - Velocity of impulse
I. Introduction.-II. Penaeus Shrimp as an Experimental Marine Animal for Neurobiological Study.-III. Morphological Studies on the Myelin Sheath of Nerve Fibers.-IV. Biochemical study on myelin of nervous system.-V. Myelin Sheath with a New Type of Fine Structure Found in the Nervous System of the Penaeus Shrimp, the Invertebrates.-VI. Two Unique Structures Discovered in the Myelinated Fibers of the Penaeus Shrimp.-VII. Studies on Impulse Conduction of Nerve Fibers .-VIII. Saltatory Conduction Found in the Nervous System of Invertebrates, Shrimp (Penaeus) and the Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestries).-IX. Experimental Confirmation of Saltatory Conduction Hypothesis.-X. Three Mechanisms or Strategies for Increasing Conduction Velocity of Nerve Fibers.-XI. Ultra-High Conduction Velocity Found in the Medial Giant Fiber of Penaeus chinensis and Penaeus japonicas.-XII. Remarks on Evolution of Myelin Sheath, Glial Cells, Nodal Structures and Conduction Function of Nerve Fibers.