Microstructural Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex
From Brodmann's Post-Mortem Map to in Vivo Mapping with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Geyer, Stefan, Turner, Robert (Eds.)
2013, VIII, 257 p. 94 illus., 36 illus. in color.
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Explains why cortical areas and their boundaries are “classically” defined by their cyto- and myeloarchitectonic pattern in post-mortem brains
Illustrates how state-of-the-art high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies can generate in living brains individual-specific maps of cortical microstructure that are based on differential grey matter myelination between areas
Shows that the ultimate research goal is direct structure-function correlation in the same subjects, which can now be achieved by matching MRI-based microstructural and functional maps in the same living brains
Unraveling the functional properties of structural elements in the brain is one of the fundamental goals of neuroscientific research. In the cerebral cortex this is no mean feat, since cortical areas are defined microstructurally in post-mortem brains but functionally in living brains with electrophysiological or neuroimaging techniques – and cortical areas vary in their topographical properties across individual brains. Being able to map both microstructure and function in the same brains noninvasively in vivo would represent a huge leap forward. In recent years, high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies with spatial resolution below 0.5 mm have set the stage for this by detecting structural differences within the human cerebral cortex, beyond the Stria of Gennari. This provides the basis for an in vivo microanatomical brain map, with the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains.
This book starts with Brodmann’s post-mortem map published in the early 20th century, moves on to the almost forgotten microstructural maps of von Economo and Koskinas and the Vogt-Vogt school, sheds some light on more recent approaches that aim at mapping cortical areas noninvasively in living human brains, and culminates with the concept of “in vivo Brodmann mapping” using high-field MRI, which was introduced in the early 21st century.