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Biomedical Sciences - Neuroscience | Anthropoid Origins - New Visions

Anthropoid Origins

New Visions

Ross, Callum F., Kay, Richard F. (Eds.)

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2004, XXIX, 749 p.

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The study ofanthropoid origins continues to be a lightning rod for research in paleoanthropology. Issuessurrounding anthropoid origins impact the higher leveltaxonomy ofprimates, adaptivescenariosfor basalprimate radiations, and the timing of origination of the major primate clades. Basic questions about anthropoid evolution remain unanswered. Where do anthropoids fit phyloge­ netically among primates? Where and when did the group originate? What functional and adaptive innovations characterize anthropoids today and what is the adaptive significanceand phylogenetic history ofthese innovations? The fossil record of early anthropoid evolution has greatly improved in recent years. Developments in systematictechniques and theory, as well as the burgeoning molecular evidence, make this an ideal time for these fossil discoveries to be placed in the context of data on the relationships among living primates. There isan improved understandingoffunction and adaptation in the visual system, brain, and masticatory apparatus, key anatomical systems where anthropoid synapomorphies are concentrated. New methods for estimating visualacuity and activitypatterns in fossil primates are providing insights into the evolution ofthe visualsystem. The rapid accumulation ofinformation on color vision in primates, including new genetic evidence of possible trichro­ macyin strepsirrhines, and new behavioraldata on the benefitsofcolor vision, makes this an exciting time to evaluate the role of chromatic perception in anthropoid evolution. Research into the primate visualsystem by neuroscien­ tists has generated a plethoraofimportant data in recent years, making this an ideal time to bring these researchers together with anthropologists.

Content Level » Research

Keywords » evolution - phylogeny - primates - the origin

Related subjects » Anthropology & Archaeology - Evolutionary & Developmental Biology - Geology - Internal Medicine - Neuroscience

Table of contents 

1: Introduction.- 1. Evolving Perspectives of Anthropoidea.- Essentialism.- Rationalism.- Parallelism.- “Intentional Vagueness”.- Phylogenetic Hypotheses: From Vagueness to Precision.- Is Anthropoidea a Monophyletic Group, and what are its Synapomorphic Features?.- To which Group of Fossil or Extant Primates is Anthropoidea most Closely Related?.- Are there Asian Eocene Anthropoids?.- Origins of Crown Anthropoids.- Adaptive Explanations for Anthropoid Origins.- Cartmill.- Cachel.- Rosenberger.- Ross.- Hylander and Ravosa.- Function and Phylogeny in Anthropoid Evolution.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 2: Anthropoid Evolutionary Relationships.- Molecular Phylogeny and Dating of Early Primate Divergences.- The Position of Primates in the Mammalian Tree.- Phylogeny and Dating of Early Primate Divergences.- Methods.- Results and Discussion.- Phylogenetic Position of Tarsiers.- Dating of Early Primate Divergences.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Molecular Cladistic Markers and the Infraordinal Phylogenetic Relationships of Primates.- Tarsins: A Disputed Split in Primate Phylogeny.- Retropositions as Molecular, Cladistic, Phylogenetic Markers.- Mechanism of SINE Retroposition.- Functional Consequences of SINE Retropositions.- Chromosomal Target Sites.- Reversal of Retropositions.- SINE Fixation and Lineage Sorting.- SINEs as Evolutionary Landmarks.- Direct Repeats.- Alu-SINE Markers and Primate Evolution.- Origin and Nomenclature.- Alu Subfamilies: Successive Waves of Fixation.- Alu-SINEs and Primate Infraorders.- Screening of Human GenBank Entries.- PCR-Amplification and Sequencing.- Verification of Orthology and Independence.- Infraordinal Relationships of Primates and Alu-SINE Distribution.- References.- The Ancestral Genomes in Primate Phylogeny and Origins: A Molecular Cytogenetic Perspective.- Chromosome Painting in Primates.- Old World Monkeys and Apes.- New World Monkeys.- Strepsirrhines.- Tree Shrews.- Conclusions.- Ancestral Placental Mammalian Karyotype.- Ancestral Primate Karyotype.- Genomic Landmarks for the Origin of the Principal Divisions of Higher Primates.- The Genome of the Tarsier and Anthropoid Origins.- Comparative Chromosome Painting and Gene Mapping.- References.- Anthropoid Origins: A Phylogenetic Analysis.- Questions Surrounding Anthropoid Origins.- Is Anthropoidea a Monophyletic Group, and if so what are its Synapomorphic Features?.- To which Group of Fossil or Extant Primates is Anthropoidea most Closely Related?.- How do Asian Eocene Taxa (Eosimiidae and Amphipithecidae) Relate to Anthropoidea?.- How do Eocene and Oligocene African Anthropoids Relate to Platyrrhini and Catarrhini?.- Materials and Methods.- Characters.- Taxa.- Analyses.- Assumptions and Data Combinations.- Taxonomic Terminology.- Results.- Is Anthropoidea a Monophyletic Group?.- To which Group of Fossil or Extant Primates is Anthropoidea most Closely Related?.- How do Asian Eocene Amphipithecidae Relate to Anthropoidea?.- Other Problematic Anthropoids.- How do Parapithecidae, Propliopithecidae, and Oligopithecidae Relate to the Platyrrhini and Catarrhini?.- Preferred Tree.- Comparisons with Other Phylogenetic Analyses.- Geography.- Timing of the Branching of the Primate Clades.- Character Evolution.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 3: Fossil Anthropoids and the Biogeography of Anthropoid Origins.- Does Overlap Among the Adaptive Radiations of Omomyoids, Adapoids, and Early Anthropoids Cloud our Understanding of Anthropoid Origins?.- Adaptive Diversity of Early Primate Radiations.- Omomyoid Adaptive Radiation.- Adapoid Adaptive Radiation.- Eocene Anthropoid Adaptive Radiation.- Early Oligocene Anthropoids.- Discussion.- Tarsal Anatomy and Anthropoid Origins.- Evaluating Newly Proposed Anthropoid Synapomorphies.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 7. Phylogenetic, Biogeographic, and Adaptive Implications of New Fossil Evidence Bearing on Crown Anthropoid Origins and Early Stem Catarrhine Evolution.- Oligopithecus, Catopithecus, and the Perennial Problem of Catarrhine Origins : A Brief History.- New Phylogenetic Evidence from Fayum Anthropoid Postcrania.- Changing Conceptions of the Crown Anthropoid Morphotype.- Character Transformation and Adaptation in Early Catarrhine Evolution.- Biogeography of Early Crown Anthropoid Evolution.- Anthropoid Origins: Comments on the Role of Afro-Arabia.- Acknowledgments.- Appendix 1: Step-Matrix for Biogeographic Character.- References.- 8. The Cranium and Adaptations of Parapithecus grangeri a Stem Anthropoid from the Fayum Oligocene of Egypt.- The Material.- Cranium.- Convergence.- Frontation.- Basicranial Flexion.- Postorbital Closure.- Mandible, Dentition, and Dental function.- Postcranium.- Body Size and Brain Volume.- Discussion and Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 9. The Primate-Bearing Pondaung Formation in the Upland Area, Northwest of Central Myanmar.- Stratigraphy.- Pondaung Formation.- The Lower Member.- The Upper Member.- Summary on the Age of the Pondaung Formation.- Evidence from Microfauna and Flora.- Stratigraphic and Faunal Evidences.- Magnetostratigraphic Results.- Dating by Fission-Track Analysis.- The Primate Horizons of the Pondaung Formation.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 10. A Review of the Large-Bodied Pondaung Primates of Myanmar.- The Pondaung Formation.- Pondaungia.- History of Discovery.- History of Study.- Pondaungia cotteri.- Pondaungia minuta.- Amphipithecus.- History of Discovery.- History of Study.- Age of the Pondaung Primates.- Phylogenetic Relationships.- Conclusions.- References.- 11. Eocene Large-Bodied Primates of Myanmar and Thailand: Morphological Considerations and Phylogenetic Affinities.- Who, Where, and When.- Myanmar.- Primates.- Biochronology and Geochronology.- Thailand.- Primates.- Biochronology and Geochronology.- Morphology.- Dental Characteristics.- Cranial Morphology.- Postcranial Morphology.- Postcranial Comparisons.- Functional Convergence.- Hard-Object Feeding.- Phylogenetic Implications.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 12. The Pondaung Primates, Enigmatic “Possible Anthropoids” from the Latest Middle Eocene, Central Myanmar.- Geological Ages and Fossil Localities.- Recently Discovered Specimens of the Pondaung Primates.- Maxillary Specimen of Pondaungia.- First Maxillary and Frontal Specimens of Amphipithecus.- Myanmarpithecus yarshensis.- “Paukkaung molar,” a New Primate or Miacid Carnivore?.- Discussion.- Definition of the Amphipithecidae.- Phyletic Position of the Amphipithecidae: Is it a Notharctine?.- The Validity of the “Amphipithecidae”: Are They Closely Related to Each Other?.- East Asia as a Stage for the Evolution of Eocene Primates.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- The Morphology of Two Maxillae of Pondaung Primates (Pondaungia cotteri and Amphipithecus mogaungensis) (middle Eocene, Myanmar).- Morphology of the Maxilla.- Pondaungia cotteri (NMMP-KU0003).- Maxillary Body.- Maxillary Sinus.- Amphipithecus mogaungensis (NMMP-KU0228 a).- Maxillary Body.- Maxillary Sinus.- The Comparative Morphology of the Maxilla in Primates.- Prosimians.- Extant Prosimians.- Fossil Prosimians.- Anthropoids.- Platyrrhines.- Catarrhines.- Comparison and Discussion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Siamopithecus eocaenus, Anthropoid Primate from the Late Eocene of Krabi, Thailand.- Geology, Fauna, and Age of Krabi Locality.- Siamopithecus eocaenus Chaimanee et al. (1997).- TF 3635: Right Maxilla with P3-M3.- TF 3634: Right Lower Jaw Fragment with Distal, ml-m3.- TF 7624: Right Lower Jaw with Canine, P3-M3.- Comparison.- Siamopithecus Compared to Pondaungia.- Siamopithecus Compared to Amphipithecus.- Siamopithecus Compared to Bahinia.- Siamopithecus Compared to Myanmarpithecus.- Phylogenetic Relationships.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 15. Anthropoid Origins: Postcranial Evidence from the Eocene of Asia.- Postcranial Anatomy of Stem Anthropoids.- Asian Stem Anthropoids.- Eosimiid Tarsals.- New Protoanthropoid Tarsals.- Diversity and Size.- Phylogenetic Implications.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 4: Evolution of Anthropoid Adaptations.- 16. Evidence for Early Anthropoid Social Behavior.- Models of the Correlates of Dimorphism in Living Primates.- Relationship between Relative Canine Size and Intrasexual Competition.- The Correlated Response Model.- Inferring Behavior from Dimorphism and Canine Size in Early Anthropoids.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- function and Fusion of the Mandibular Symphysis in Mammals: A Comparative and Experimental Perspective.- Functional Significance of Symphyseal Character States.- Dorsoventral Shear and Symphyseal Fusion.- Wishboning and Symphyseal Fusion.- Ontogeny and Symphyseal Fusion.- Transverse Stiffness and Symphyseal Fusion.- Anthropoid Origins and Symphyseal Fusion.- Masticatory Function in Early Anthropoids.- Symphyseal Homology and Anthropoid Systematics.- Symphyseal Fusion and the Anthropoid Postorbital Septum.- Jaw-Adductor Activity Patterns, Symphyseal Fusion, and Mammalian Phylogeny.- Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 18. The Distribution and Size of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Microcebus murinus, Cheirogaleus medius, and Tavsius syrichta: Implications for the Evolution of Sensory Systems in Primates.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- The Tarsier Fovea: Functionless Vestige or Nocturnal Adaptation?.- The Fovea and Haplorhine/Anthropoid Origins.- Anatomy of the Fovea.- Functional Analysis.- Functional Analysis Methods.- Results of Functional Analysis.- Comparative Analysis.- Comparative Methods.- Results of Comparative Analysis.- Fishes.- Protacanthopterygii.- Euryptergians.- Acanthomorpha.- Summary of Fish Data.- Lepidosauria.- Archosauria.- Discussion.- Functional Analysis.- Function of Increased Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Densities.- Function of the Retinal Pit.- Function of the Absence of Blood Vessels.- Comparative Analysis.- The Function of the Tarsier Fovea.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 20. The Evolution of High Visual Acuity in the Anthropoidea.- The Morphological Basis for High Visual Acuity in Anthropoids.- Eye Size and Shape.- Absence of Tapeta Lucida.- Short-Wavelength Filters.- Central Retinal Anatomy.- Osteological Correlates of Retinal Summation and Visual Acuity in Extant Primates.- Orbit Size.- Optic Foramen Size.- The Optic Foramen Quotient (OFQ).- What Does the Optic Foramen Quotient Measure?.- Optic Foramen Quotients of Extant Primates.- Optic Foramen Quotients in Fossil Primates — A Paleontological Record of Retinal Summation and Visual Acuity.- Results of the Current Analysis.- Implications for Anthropoid Origins — Non-Anthropoid Fossil Taxa.- Implications for Anthropoid Origins — Simonsius grangeri.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 21. Endocranial Volume and Optic Foramen Size in Pampithecus grangeri.- Methods.- Results.- Endocranial Measurements.- Estimation of Degree of Retinal Summation.- Discussion.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Color as an Indicator of Food Quality to Anthropoid Primates: Ecological Evidence and an Evolutionary Scenario.- Nature and Distribution of Primate Opsins.- Color Vision in Primates.- Evolutionary Ecology of Primate Color Vision.- Importance of Food Color.- Resolving Debate on the Evolutionary Ecology of Trichromatic Vision.- Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Evolutionary Scenario.- Visual Ecology in the Paleocene.- Visual Ecology in the Eocene.- Visual Ecology in the Oligocene and Neogene.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 23. Photopigment Variations and the Evolution of Anthropoid Vision.- The Basic Mammalian Plan.- Opsin Genes and Photopigments of Contemporary Primates.- Primate S-cone Pigments.- Primate M/L Cone Pigments.- Pigment Variations and Their Implications for Seeing.- Systematic Variations.- Catarrhines.- Platyrrhines.- Strepsirrhines.- Evolutionary Considerations.- Interpretative Cautions.- Ancestral Photopigments.- Opsin Gene Duplications.- Opsin Gene Polymorphisms.- Photopigments of Early Anthropoids.- References.- 24. Mosaic Evolution of Activity Pattern, Diet, and Color Vision in Haplorhine Primates.- How Many Times Have Trichromacy and Diurnality Evolved in Primates?.- The Adaptive Significance of Trichromacy.- Focus of this Study.- Materials and Methods.- Activity Pattern Reconstruction for Bahinia.- Dietary Reconstruction of Eocene-Oligocene Haplorhines.- Character Mapping and Optimization.- Results.- Activity Pattern Reconstruction for Bahinia.- Dietary Reconstruction of Eocene-Oligocene Haplorhines.- Evolution of Activity Pattern.- Evolution of Diet.- Evolution of Chromatic Vision.- Discussion and Conclusions.- Fossil Early Haplorhines and Evolutionary Transitions in Activity Pattern and Diet.- The Mosaic Evolution of Activity Pattern, Diet, and Trichromacy.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- Summary Tree File for the Matrix used in this Analysis.- Character Descriptions.- Character 1: Diet.- Character 2: Activity Pattern.- Character 3: Color Vision.- Character States.- References.- 5: The Future of Anthropoid Origins.- Anthropoid origins: Retrospective and Prospective.- Introductory Comments.- Anthropoid Phylogenetic Relationships.- Relationships of Primates to Other Mammals.- Relationship of Anthropoids to Other Primates.- The Living Groups.- Results from analytical choices and of various partitions of data.- Taxon choice.- The molecular data set.- Which Extinct Taxa are Haplorhine?.- Relationships among Basal Anthropoids.- Possible Asian anthropoids.- Amphipithecidae.- Eosimiidae.- Stem and Crown Anthropoids of Africa.- Origins of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine Primates.- Antiquity of the Major Clades.- Fossil Evidence.- Haplorhine-Strepsirrhine split (>57 Ma).- Tarsius-Anthropoidea split (> 45 Ma).- Platyrrhine-catarrhine split (>34 or >36 Ma).- Molecular Evidence.- Evolution of Anthropoid Adaptations.- Visual System.- Activity Pattern.- Visual Acuity.- Orbital Convergence and Frontation.- Color Vision.- Auditory System.- Anterior Accessory Cavity.- Masticatory Apparatus.- Symphyseal Fusion.- Social Behavior in Early Anthropoids.- Concluding Summary.- References.- Scientific Name Index.

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