The existence of life at high temperatures is quiet fascinating. At elevated temperatures, only microorganisms are capable of growth and survival. Many thermophilic microbial genera have been isolated from man-made (washing machines, factory effluents, waste streams and acid mine effluents) and natural (volcanic areas, geothermal areas, terrestrial hot springs, submarine hydrothermal vents, geothermally heated oil reserves and oil wells, sun-heated litter and soils/sediments) thermal habitats throughout the world. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches have been employed for understanding the diversity of microbes in hot environments. Interest in their diversity, ecology, and physiology has increased enormously during the past few decades as indicated by the deliberations in international conferences on extremophiles and thermophiles held every alternate year and papers published in journals such as Extremophiles.
Thermophilic moulds and bacteria have been extensively studied in plant biomass bioconversion processes as sources of industrial enzymes and as gene donors. In the development of third generation biofuels such as bioethanol, thermophilic fungal and bacterial enzymes are of particular interest. The book is aimed at bringing together scattered up-to-date information on various aspects of thermophiles such as the diversity of thermophiles and viruses of thermophiles, their potential roles in pollution control and bioremediation, and composting.
Preface.- Part I Thermophiles in the Environment.- 1 Diversity of hot environments and thermophilic microbes, D. Mehta and T. Satyanarayana.- 2 Exploring the ecology of thermophiles from Australia’s Great Artesian Basin during the genomic era, C.D. Ogg, M.D. Spanevello and B.K.C. Patel.- 3 Hot environments from Antarctica: source of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, with potential biotechnological applications, P.A. Flores, M.J. Amenabar and J.M. Blamey.- 4 Bacterial and biochemical properties of newly invented aerobic, high-temperature compost, T. Yoshii, T. Moriya and T. Oshima.- 5 Role of thermophilic microflora in composting, S. Rawat and B.N. Johri.- 6 Metal remediation by thermophilic microorganisms, P. Sar, S.K. Kazy, D.Paul and A.Sarkar.- 7 CO-oxidizing anaerobic thermophilic prokaryotes, T. Sokolova and A. Lebedinsky.- 8 Biomineralization in thermal environments, K. Doi and Y. Fujino.- 9 Phylogeny and biological features of thermophiles, T. Itoh and T. Iino.- 10 Biology, biodiversity and application of thermophilic viruses, K. Uldahl and Xu Peng.- Part II Genomics, metagenomics and biotechnology.- 11 Genomics of thermophilic bacteria and archaea, T.Sato and H. Atomi.- 12 Comparative genomics of thermophilic bacteria and archaea, S. Akanuma, S. Yokobori and A. Yamagishi.- 13 Host-vector system in thermophiles, T. Inoue and Y.Sako.- 14 Molecular chaperones in thermophilic eubacteria and archaea, M. Sahlanand M. Yohda.- 15 Heterologous Production of Thermostable Proteins and Enzymes, H.Sakuraba and T. Ohshima.- 16 Discovery of thermostable enzymes from hot environmental samples by metagenomic approaches, N. Kurosawa.- 17 DNA polymerases and DNA ligases, S. Ishino and Y. Ishino.- 18 Molecular diversity of biotechnological relevance of thermophilic actinobacteria, S.P. Singh, R.J. Shukla and B.A. Kikani.- 19 Mechanisms of thermostability adopted by thermophilic proteins and their use in white biotechnology, J. Littlechild, H. Novak and C. Sayer.- 20 Starch-hydrolyzing enzymes from thermophiles, S. Elleuche and G. Antranikian.- 21 Thermostable archaeal and bacterial pullulanases and amylopullulanases, M. Nisha and T. Satyanarayana.- 22 Sugar metabolic enzymes, K. Yoshimune and Y. Kawarabayasi.- 23 Restriction enzymes from thermophiles, R. Kumar, P. Sharma and N. Capalash.- 24 Microbial chitinases: natural sources, mutagenesis and directed evolution to obtain thermophilic counterparts, P.V.S.R.N. Sarma, J. MadhuPrakash, S.N. Das, M. Kaur, P. Purushotham and A.R. Podile.- 25 Phytases and phosphatases of thermophiles: production, characteristics and multifarious applications, B. Singh and T. Satyanarayana.- 26 Pectinases of thermophilic microbes, S.S. Dhiman, R. Mahajan and J. Sharma.- 27 Developments in thermostable gellanlyase, M. Kambourova and A. Derekova.- 28 Lignocellulolytic system of thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes: structure regulation and biotechnological applications, M. J. Poças-Fonseca, R.W.M. Matos and T. M. Mello-de-Sousa.- 29 Cellulases of thermophilic microbes, L.V. Rao, A.K. Chandel, G. Chandrasekhar, A.V. Rodhe and J. Sridevi.- 30 Xylanases from thermophilic fungi: classification, structure and case study of Melanocarpus albomyces, S. Mishra, V. Sahai, V. S. Bisaria, R. Biswas, G. Gupta and S. Nakra.- 31 Thermostable bacterial xylanases, V. Kumar, D. Verma, A. Archana and T. Satyanarayana.- 32 Thermostable proteases, R. Sinha and S. K. Khare.- 33 Microbial keratinases: diversity and applications, R. Gupta, E. Tiwary, R. Sharma, R. Rajput and N. Nair. 34 Biocatalysis through thermostable lipases: adding flavor to chemistry, R. Sharma, V. Thakur, M. Sharma and N. Birkeland. Index.